An Empirical Study on Campus Dwelling Environment Quality in Beijing and Its Influencing Factors
Zhang, Guifang, Ning, Yanjie, Fan, Luqing, Mei, Chuhan, Tian, Lijie, Chu, Ziqi, Studies in Sociology of Science
Since universities are the bases of national talents training, their living environment quality would affect students' physical and mental health as well as the society's future development directly. Eco-construction of residential community will be the necessary developed current in the future, with the evaluation model of human settlement becoming one of the most important standards in testing developers' and estate management offices' managerial capability. The study of human settlement evaluation overseas dates from the 1980s. In the year of 1988, Building Research Establishment (BRE) Group in Britain issued the BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) (Porritt, 1998). After that, more assessment methods were issued including LEEDTM (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) by USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council), CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency) by JSBC (The Japan Sustainable Building Consortium) and NABERS (National Australian Building Environmental Rating System) (Vale, et al, 1972; BREEAM, 1991; WCED., 1987) by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage in Australia. China's Center for Housing Industrialization has taken nine natural indexes, including energy, water, air, sound, light and heat, as the criteria of dwelling environment (Jaques, 2000); it also announced GBCAS (Assessment System for Green Building of Beijing Olympic) (Research Group of Green Olympics Building, 2003) to welcome the Beijing Olympic and prepare for the future sustainable development. In general, there is not a specific assessment system both at home and abroad for higher schools whose facility and culture are different from other places. This paper tries to establish a scientific and normative system to assess the living environment in higher schools, to find out and solve the main ecological problems there by the system.
1. LITERATURE REVIEW AND HYPOTHESIS
The study of the influencing factors of dwelling environment quality has always been a key point in the field of environmental assessment. The early researches of dwelling environment focused more on the exploration of natural landscape which influences dwelling environment in multiple aspects including sound, light, electricity, heat, water etc. In contrast, the later researches pay more attention to the influence cultural environment including neighborhood relationship, cultural activities, cultural characteristics, sense of belonging etc.. Based on the early and later researches, the article mainly discusses the influence both by natural landscape and cultural environment on dwelling environment quality. Meanwhile, amenities in the college residential district are also discusses for they show the hardware quality on campus.
1.1 Natural Landscape and Dwelling Environment Quality
Some scholars, such as Howard (1898), Gaddis (1915) and Mumford (1938), who pointed out that we should utilize landscape with creativity to make our urban environment more natural and livable, and emphasized on the effects that landscape made on residential district (1). International Association of Green Architecture and Residential Landscape proposed nine natural indexes on rating international green (ecological) architecture (Stewart, W. H. & Roth, P. L., 2001). Ma Wenyin (2003) advanced the new idea of "Green advanced the new idea of "Green", referring to "Green" not only in space but also in function. "Green in space" means to improve the water environment and local climate in the living quarter, maintain the liquidity of air and water, and meet the requirement of little noise and fresh air, whereas "Green in function" refers to improving living conditions, such as cement, roof, rubbish, sewage, by eco-technology, which realize ecologization (Comrey, A. L., 1988).
Accordingly, the study proposes the hypothesis as follows,
H1: A positive linear correlation exists between natural landscape and dwelling environment quality. …