Stonehenge Remodelled

By Darvill, Timothy; Marshall, Peter et al. | Antiquity, December 2012 | Go to article overview

Stonehenge Remodelled


Darvill, Timothy, Marshall, Peter, Pearson, Mike Parker, Wainwright, Geoff, Antiquity


[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Introduction

Since the early years of the twentieth century it has been recognised that Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, UK, was a long-lived monument with several stages of construction. The publication in 1995 of the twentieth-century excavations at the site (Cleal et al. 1995) broadly endorsed a three-phase sequence and, by means of a ground-breaking Bayesian modelling of the radiocarbon dates (Allen & Bayliss 1995; Bayliss et al. 1997; Bronk Ramsey & Bayliss 2000), was provided with a robust chronology. Subsequent minor revisions to the original Bayesian model (Bayliss et al. 2007; Parker Pearson et al. 2007, 2009) have followed. In this paper we remodel the Stonehenge sequence and present a revised phasing, based upon the results of the most recent investigations (Parker Pearson et al. 2007, 2009, 2010; Darvill & Wainwright 2009), reinterpretation of previously recorded stratigraphy, additional radiocarbon dates, and a series of new chronological models (Marshall et al. 2012). It is recognised that the scheme is provisional, and in places tentative, but we present it as a working hypothesis for future investigations to test.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The location and nomenclature of the principal structural features are given in Figure 1. The main components, from the exterior inwards, are: an earthwork enclosure with north and south barrows, a southern entrance, and a north-eastern entrance from the Avenue with a group of standing stones in and beyond the north-eastern entrance (including the 'Heel' and Slaughter' stones); within the enclosure, a circle of Aubrey holes, which may have held stones and/or posts; four Station stones; two roughly concentric rings of pits known as the Fond Z holes (barely visible on the surface); the sarsen circle; the double bluestone circle set in the Q and R holes (not visible on the surface); the outer bluestone circle; the trilithon horseshoe; the bluestone oval now visible as a bluestone horseshoe; a central bluestone circle (not visible on the surface); and, lying in the centre, the 'Altar' stone. 'Bluestone' is an archaeological term popularised in the early twentieth century to refer to what had previously been called the 'foreign' stones (i.e. any stones that are not locally derived sarsens). The portmanteau term 'bluestone' thus embraces a range of dolerites (including the well-known spotted dolerites), tuffs, rhyolites and sandstones. Except for the sandstones (Ixer & Turner 2006), the other bluestones derive from the Preseli hills of north Pembrokeshire (Thomas 1923; Thorpe et al. 1991; Darvill et al. 2009; Ixer & Bevins 2010). A detailed plan of the excavations at Stonehenge is provided by Cleal et al. (1995: tabs 1 & 2); see also Richards (2007: 160) for a simplified plan.

Twentieth-century phasing models

Despite Herbert Stone's assertion that the "present structure of Stonehenge, as we see it, is all of one period" (1924: 2), early excavations (Gowland 1902; Hawley 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1928) clearly showed that this was not the case. Writing in Antiquity, Robert Newall first articulated what later became known as the "Two Date Theory" of Stonehenge (Newall 1929: 84). This postulated an early phase comprising the earthwork enclosure, Aubrey Holes, and cremation burials, followed some time later by the central stone setting.

Although questioned by Cunnington (1935: 88) as being too simplistic, Stuart Piggott perpetuated the 'Two Date Theory' in a little-cited but important paper published in 1951 (Piggott 1951) at the start of new excavations by Atkinson, Piggott himself, and Stone. Five years later, it was Piggott's nomenclature and, to a lesser extent, his phasing that Richard Atkinson adopted (Atkinson 1956: 58-77). By the 1979 revision of Atkinson's Stonehenge, there were five radiocarbon dates for Stonehenge and four for its Avenue, and these appeared to confirm the overall sequence (Table 1; Atkinson 1979: appendix II). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Stonehenge Remodelled
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.