Dam Removal in the Pacific Northwest: Lessons for the Nation

By Blumm, Michael C.; Erickson, Andrew B. | Environmental Law, Fall 2012 | Go to article overview

Dam Removal in the Pacific Northwest: Lessons for the Nation


Blumm, Michael C., Erickson, Andrew B., Environmental Law


I. INTRODUCTION
II. THE ELWHA RIVER: REMOVAL OF THE ELWHA AND GLINES CANYON DAMS
    A. Damming the Elwha River.
       1. Construction of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams
       2. The Decline of the Elwha River Ecosystem
    B. FERC Relicensing, Political Compromise, and Dam Removal Efforts
       1. Relicensing the Dams
       2. Political Compromise and Funding for Removal
       3. The Removal
    C. Restoring the Elwha River
III. THE WHITE SALMON RIVER: REMOVING THE CONDIT DAM
    A. Condit Dam Construction
    B. The Federal Power Act, Relicensing, and Dam Removal Efforts
       1. The Federal Power Act and FERC Relicensing
       2. The 1999 Agreement, Federal and State Regulatory Approval,
          and License Forfeiture
       3. The Dam Removal Process
    C. Restoring the White Salmon River
IV. THE SANDY RIVER BASIN: DECOMMISSIONING THE BULL RUN HYDROELECTRIC
    PROJECT
    A. The Little Sandy and Marmot Dams
    B. The Settlement Agreement to Remove the Dams
       1. The Settlement Agreement and FERC License Surrender
       2. The Removal Procedures
    C. Restoring the Sandy River Basin
V. THE ROGUE RIVER: RESTORING THE WILD AND SCENIC RIVER
    A. Fragmenting the River: Dams Throughout the Rogue Basin
       1. Savage Rapids Dam
       2. Gold Hill Dam
       3. Gold Ray Dam
       4. Elk Creek Dam
    B. Restoring the Rogue River
VI. THE KLAMATH RIVER BASIN: LOOKING AHEAD TO FUTURE DAM REMOVALS
    A. Setting the Stage for the Klamath Controversy
       1. Dam Building for Power
       2. Irrigating the Upper Klamth Basin
       3. Tribal Water Rights and the Disappearing Salmon
    B. Dam Removal and the Klamath Basin Agreements
       1. The Relicensing Process
       2. The Agreements
    C. Factors Affecting Dam Removal: Lessons for the Klamath
VII. CONCLUSION

I. INTRODUCTION

The Pacific Northwest stands at the forefront of a new era in dam removal and river restoration. For over twenty years, the government has studied, and river advocates have championed, a policy of breaching dams that block salmon passage to spawning streams in Washington, Oregon, and California. (1) Recently removed dams and several scheduled removals indicate that long-fought efforts to remove certain dams and restore their rivers are bearing fruit. (2)

For most of the twentieth century, dam construction dominated the rivers of the Pacific Northwest. (3) Throughout the region's major river basins, dams produced hydropower, irrigation, flood control, and opportunities for recreation. (4) Yet the benefits of the dams came at high environmental costs. (5) Salmon and other anadromous fish that return from the ocean to spawn in freshwater streams encounter dams that often prevent their passage. (6) The high mortality rates caused by dams led to the listing of a number of salmon species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). (7) Inadequate fish ladders, changed hydraulic conditions, and the difficulties of downstream fish passage around the dams led many to claim that saving and replenishing salmon resources depended on removing barriers to free-flowing rivers and restoring the rivers' natural hydrology. (8)

Serious public attention turned to the prospect of removing dams in the 1990s. (9) In 1992, Congress authorized the federal purchase of the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams in Washington State for $29.5 million. (10) The Elwha Act directed the Department of the Interior to study and implement complete restoration of the Elwha River ecosystem, including the removal of the two dams (11) Two years later, in 1994, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a policy statement interpreting section 3 of the Electric Consumers Protection Act (12)--which requires FERC to give equal consideration to environmental and economic factors when licensing dams (13)--concluding that the agency could order removal of dams at the dam owner's expense. (14) Inherent in FERC's dam removal policy was the recognition that in some cases the balance of environmental and economic considerations tipped in favor of removing dams. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Dam Removal in the Pacific Northwest: Lessons for the Nation
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.