Evaluation of the Student Life-Stress Inventory-Revised

By Gadzella, Bernadette M.; Baloglu, Mustafa et al. | Journal of Instructional Psychology, June 2012 | Go to article overview

Evaluation of the Student Life-Stress Inventory-Revised


Gadzella, Bernadette M., Baloglu, Mustafa, Masten, William G., Wang, Qingwei, Journal of Instructional Psychology


Analysis of the Student-life Stress Inventory, SSI-R, with 601 students showed that the inventory was a reliable and valid instrument for measuring students' stressors and reactions to stressors. The SSI-R has 53 items grouped under nine categories and two sections (Stressors and Reactions to Stressors). The internal consistency for the total SSI-R was .93 and test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .46 to .76. Significant differences were found among the three stress level groups on all categories and total stress score. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that variables contributed to their respective latent variables. Scores on the SSI-R categories correlated positively with scores on the Test Anxiety, State-Trait Anxiety, and Beck Depression Inventory scores, respectively. Other studies should be conducted to determine if there are differences between participants who score mild versus severe stress on various activities and learning processes.

**********

At one time or another, everyone experiences some stress. Stress may be a different kind of and/or at different levels. Selye (1974) defined stress as the non-specific response of the body to demands made on it. He described stress as distress and eustress. The distress has negative effects but eustress has positive effects on humans. Some researchers refer to stressors as hassles (Lazarus & Folkman, (1984) or mild and severe (Gadzella, 1991). The mild stress would be equivalent to Selye's eustress and the severe stress to his distress.

The study of stress, its effects, and how to cope with it, is of concern to psychologists, counselors, educators, students, and common people in general. To combat stress, it is important to first recognize and admit that one is experiencing it, to understand what effects it has, and know how to cope and/or reduce the stressful experiences.

Theorists point out that the effects of stress are not entirely negative. Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000), stated that researchers had devoted too much time to the weaknesses and harmful effects of stress and had neglected to explore the effects of stress which can make life worth living. Folkman and Mosknvitz (2000) also drew attention to the favorable outcomes of stressful experiences. Other researchers (e.g., Tedescki, Park, & Calhoun, 1998) felt that stress may promote personal growth, assist people in developing new skills, reevaluate priorities, and acquire new strengths. Sutherland (2000) summed it up indicating that most people would prefer some stimulation (caused by stress) rather than live a boring stress-free existence. Stated differently, stressful situations may lead to personal changes which might be beneficial to individuals. That is, it can improve one's coping skills and enable one to learn from one's mistakes (Calhoun & Tedescki, 2001). This type of stress may be referred to as mild or eustress as described by Selye (1974).

Over the years, researchers (Holmes & Rahe, 1967; Scheier & Carver, 1985) developed questionnaires to assist people in understanding their stressful experiences. Other researchers such as (Sarason, Johnson and Siegel (1978) studied stress and its relationships with various experiences. One inventory, Student-life Stress Inventory, SSI (Gadzella, 1991; Gadzella & Baloglu, 2001) assesses students' stress levels and assists students in understanding the different kind of stressors and reactions to stressors they might experience. Numerous studies have been conducted with the SSI (e.g., Gadzella, 1994; Gadzella & Baloglu, 2001; Gadzella & Guthrie, 1993; Gadzella & Fullwood, 1992; Gadzella, Ginther, & Fullwood, 1993; Misra & Castillo, 2004; Misra, MeKan, Russo, & West, 2000; Marzeth & Farileh, 2004) showing significant differences among students with different overall stress levels and their responses to the SSI. Other studies (e.g., Ming-Hui, 2005; Gadzella & Stephen, 2007; Gadzella & Marrs, 2007; Gadzella, Zascavage, Masten, Young, Stephens, & Pierce, 2007) showed differences among student stress level groups and academic performance.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Evaluation of the Student Life-Stress Inventory-Revised
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.