Economic Status, Education and Risky Sexual Behavior for Urban Botswana Women

By Dintwa, Kakanyo Fani | Journal of International Women's Studies, July-August 2012 | Go to article overview

Economic Status, Education and Risky Sexual Behavior for Urban Botswana Women


Dintwa, Kakanyo Fani, Journal of International Women's Studies


This study investigated the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. The data used are a nationally representative sample from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey conducted in 2004. An un-weighted sample of 2215 women aged 15-49, who have had sexual intercourse was considered for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to gain insights into the potential linkages between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior. The bivariate analysis shows that there is a significant relationship between dependent variable (number of sexual partners) and economic status. However, with the introduction of controls the significant relationship persisted. The findings also show that the married and the living together had a significantly higher chance of having more than one sexual partner compared to the Not married. However, with the introduction of controls the significant relationship that existed between economic status and having had sexual intercourse in exchange for money/girls disappeared. Moreover, women who believed that an HIV mother can avoid transmission to the baby appeared to have a significantly higher chance of having sexual intercourse in exchange for money/gifts than those who did not believe that an HIV mother can avoid transmission to the baby. Lastly this study revealed that inconsistent condom use is neither a function of economic status nor education, as well as the following socioeconomic environments; age, marital status, religion and awareness/knowledge on avoiding HIV transmission from a mother to a baby. The results of the study, shows that economic status only influences the number of sexual partners and having sexual intercourse in exchange for money/gifts.

Keywords: Botswana; Economic Status; Education; Risky-Sexual Behavior; AIDS-Risk-Behavior; AIDS-Preventive-Behavior; Multivariate Analysis; AIDS Impact Survey.

Introduction

In this study we investigate the relationship between economic status, education and risky sexual behavior for urban Botswana women. That is whether a woman with no education, primary, secondary and higher education and with an economically better off, worse off and the same economic status with their sexual partner; had more than one sexual partner; had sexual intercourse in exchange for money or gifts, and use condom inconsistently. To prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancies among urban females the following factors are examined: (a) having more than one sexual partner, (b) having had sexual intercourse in exchange for money or gifts, and (c) inconsistent condom use. The reason why only these three responses were selected is because other important variables like; having sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol, having ten year older sexual partners, among others, had almost all variables missing and there was going to be nothing to analyze and interpret.

Risky sexual behavior displayed by both males and females in sub-Saharan African counties have been identified as the main factors contributing to the increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. Such behavior among others include; having more than one sexual partner, inconsistent condom use, having sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol, having older sexual partners, inability to negotiate safe sex with partners and many others. Economic factors like poverty have been found to be influential in the engagement of women in transactional sex for the simple reason of getting money, gifts or any gift that would help them earn a living. Women are the most hit by poverty the world around.

Poverty and HIV infection are deeply intertwined. As the burden of caring for the sick, the dying and the orphaned forces millions of African women deeper into poverty and batters their energy and self-esteem, so it increases the pressure to resort to high risk "transactional" sex- sex in exchange for money or goods- or sex with older "sugar daddies" who offer the illusion of material security. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Economic Status, Education and Risky Sexual Behavior for Urban Botswana Women
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.