Approval versus Disapproval of Dogfighting and Cockfighting among College Students

By Molina, Melody; Arikawa, Hiroko et al. | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, March 2013 | Go to article overview

Approval versus Disapproval of Dogfighting and Cockfighting among College Students


Molina, Melody, Arikawa, Hiroko, Templer, Donald I., Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


We explored both the extent of approval/disapproval of cockfighting and dogfighting and the personality and animal attitude correlates of such approval versus disapproval. Cockfighting was selected because it is one of the most common sports in the world, especially in Latin America and Asia. Dogfighting was selected because, even though it is illegal, it frequently occurs in the United States.

Atyeo (1979) reviewed the history of dogfighting in the United States from its roots in England, where the Staffordshire bull terrier was bred for aggressiveness. English breeders first introduced Staffordshire terriers to the United States in the 1860s. The American bull terrier was bred to be larger and stronger than its English counterpart.

Evans, Gauthier, and Forsyth (1998) interviewed 31 American dogmen for between two and four hours at dogfights, at prefight meetings, and at the homes of the dogmen. Evans et al. found that as dog fighters tended to be men, Southern, and working class, pit bull fighting was essentially a poor man's sport. They maintained that dogfighting is a symbolic expression and validation of masculinity.

Lee, Gibbons, and Short (2010) showed college students a dogfight film involving a bait dog and administered a 6-item scale they devised and called Sympathy for the Bait Dog. Women were associated with greater sympathy and empathic concern (i.e., general trait sympathy), and scored higher on the Trait Sympathy for Animal Suffering 6-item Scale. Bonas, McNicholas, and Collis (2000) found in their study of pets in the network of family relationships that scores for companionship, nurturance, and reliable alliance were higher for human-dog relationships than for human-human relationships. In addition, support from human-dog relationships was higher than support from human-cat relationships.

McCaghy and Neal (1974) observed that few sports have the wide geographical distribution of cockfighting, which is found throughout the western hemisphere, for example, in Hawaii, and in the Philippines, Indonesia, Southeast Asia, India, and central China. In the United States, cockfighting is a sport said to be especially common among Puerto Ricans, Cajuns, Delta Blacks, Mexican-Americans, and rural Whites, and is most popular in the southern and western states (Forsyth, 1996). Cockfighting is now illegal in every state of the USA and a felony in 35 states and the District of Columbia (ASPCA, 2012).

In this study, we examined the extent of approval/disapproval of both cockfighting and dogfighting among a group of American college students and their correlates by assessing masculinity, empathy toward humans, and attitudes toward animals. Gender was included as a factor because it has been found in previous studies that dogfighting and cockfighting are primarily male activities.

Method

Participants

The 206 volunteer participants comprising 141 women (68%) and 65 men (32%) were recruited in American undergraduate courses. The age of participants ranged from 18 to 53 years, with a mean of 24.38 and a standard deviation of 7.64. In terms of ethnic origin, 36% defined themselves as White/ Euro-American, 33% Hispanic American, 10% Asian Pacific Islander, 6% Other, 4% African American, 3% Middle Eastern, 3% Native American, 3% Southeast Asian, and 2% East Indian.

Instruments

In addition to using four psychometric instruments, we used the scale shown in Table 1 to assess participant approval/disapproval of dogfighting and cockfighting.

Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Davis (1980) developed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) to measure human-directed empathy. The IRI is a 28-item Likert-type instrument that has four 7-item subscales with internal consistencies ranging from .71 to .72. We employed total score for this study. Preylo and Arikawa (2008) found that vegetarian status correlated .39 with the empathic concern subscale, . …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Approval versus Disapproval of Dogfighting and Cockfighting among College Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.