Corporate Social Responsibility in the Tourism Industry. Lessons from Communities Surrounding Great Zimbabwe Monuments

By Taru, Josiah; Gukurume, Simbarashe | Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends, June 2013 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Tourism Industry. Lessons from Communities Surrounding Great Zimbabwe Monuments


Taru, Josiah, Gukurume, Simbarashe, Journal of Tourism Challenges and Trends


Introduction

The study aims at unpacking the political economy associated with vibrant tourism industries in communities surrounding Great Zimbabwe monuments. This study examines two phenomena that have been popular in development discourse: tourism and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Discussion of these phenomena is common, tackled from different disciplines, including but not limited to economics, anthropology, sociology and geography. Tourism can be understood as an activity which entails "temporary visitors staying at least twenty-four hours in the country visited and the purpose of whose journey can be classified under one of the following headings: (a) leisure (b) business" (IUOTO, 1963, p.14). Tourism in this paper is conceptualized as a service industry that provides marketing, transport, accommodation and other related services to satisfy the needs of tourists. As an industry, it creates a tourism-based economy for the local communities whose livelihood activities are shaped, based, entirely linked and dependent on the activities of the tourism industries.

This ethnographic study sought to examine the contribution of CSR on the livelihoods of people domiciled in communities surrounding the Great Zimbabwe monuments. It also explores the level of participation of the local people in the CSR activities initiated by tourism players in the area. In addressing the aforementioned objectives, the study answers the following questions:

a) To what extent are the local communities benefitting from CRS activities done by tourism stakeholders?

b) How and at what levels are the local people participating in the CRS activities?

Review of literature

As early as 1992, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development it was recognized that tourism is an important driver in community development (Frey and George, 2010). Kalikawe (2001) noted that tourism is pivotal to the development processes in Botswana. In 1997, tourism contributed 5 percent to the 1996/1997 GDP in Botswana. Further, Kalikawe estimates that close to P1.1 billion was spent by the tourists who visited Botswana. Ross and Wall (1999) note that Ecotourism brings forth a number of economic opportunities to the receiving area, thus arguing in line with the general belief that tourism boosts the local economy and its trickling down effects can be witnessed in surrounding communities and at grassroots levels. Furthermore, tourism is a major foreign currency earner for most developing countries. In Costa Rica, tourism was the third highest source of foreign currency, bringing in more than US$ 331 million (CIDA, 1995). Important as it seems, such analysis adopts a broader national approach that neglects contributions of the tourism industry to the local communities they operate in.

In South Africa, Spenceley (2007) captures the activities of tourist enterprises engaging in RTM. Theses operators developed infrastructure, opened avenues for locals to engage in economic activities, education and employment creation; environmentally these firms initiated conservation projects. Argandona (2010) notes that several actors in tourism give back to their respective communities in a number of ways. Hoteles Husa offers scholarships to employees' children, while Hoteles Hesperia offers lower price accommodation for local NGOs and foundations. Cruise Line involved in transportation donates money to charity organizations. Some companies give back to local communities through education and advocacy against sex tourism involving children, environmental awareness and construction of residential areas to promote residential or real estate tourism (Mazon, 2002, see also www.yci.org). The Banyan Tree resorts have encouraged local artisans in most Asian rural communities to curve crafts that are marketed and sold at the hotel curio shop. Local craftsmen are given preferences to make furniture used in these hotels, thus the local communities draws benefits from the initiative of the Banyan Tree Resort (www.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Tourism Industry. Lessons from Communities Surrounding Great Zimbabwe Monuments
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?