La Protection D'une Vitalite Fragile: Les Droits Linguistiques Autochtones En Vertu De L'article 35

By Poliquin, Gabriel | McGill Law Journal, March 2013 | Go to article overview

La Protection D'une Vitalite Fragile: Les Droits Linguistiques Autochtones En Vertu De L'article 35


Poliquin, Gabriel, McGill Law Journal


The author proposes an interpretation of section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, and its related jurisprudence, in light of certain general principles emanating from Supreme Court judgments that discuss section 23 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Section 23 provides guarantees of language rights to official-language communities. The following argument flows from this interpretation: aboriginal rights in section 35 create language rights and impose a positive obligation on the state to promote the vitality of aboriginal languages. This obligation is distinct from the state's obligation concerning official languages, which serves to ensure equality between the two official linguistic communities. The state's positive obligation toward aboriginal linguistic communities requires the development of structures necessary for the preservation of aboriginal linguistic heritage in order to ensure its transmission from one generation to the next. The content of this obligation may vary from one linguistic community to another, depending on the linguistic environment specific to a given community. The author proposes that this interpretation of section 35 also corresponds to the principles promulgated by the international treaties concerning aboriginal rights to which Canada is a signatory.

L'auteur propose d'interpreter l'article 35 de la Loi constitutionnelle de 1982 et la jurisprudence pertinente a cet article a la lumiere de certains principes generaux issus de la jurisprudence de la Cour supreme du Canada portant sur l'article 23 de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertes, qui garantit des droits linguistiques aux communautes de langue officielle. La these suivante se degage de cette interpretation : les droits autochtones garantis a l'article 35 comprennent des droits linguistiques, dont une obligation positive de l'Etat de favoriser la vitalite des langues autochtones. Cette obligation de favoriser la vitalite des langues autochtones se demarque de l'obligation de l'Etat en matiere de langues officielles qui est d'assurer l'egalite des deux communautes de langue officielle. L'obligation positive de l'Etat a l'egard des communautes de langues autochtones est de mettre en place les structures necessaires a la preservation des patrimoines linguistiques autochtones pour assurer leur transmission d'une generation a l'autre. Le contenu de cette obligation pourra varier d'une communaute linguistique autochtone a l'autre selon l'ecologie linguistique propre a cette communaute. L'auteur propose en outre que cette interpretation de l'article 35 est conforme aux principes promulgues par les accords internationaux auxquels le Canada est partie en matiere de droits autochtones.

Introduction

I. Les droits linguistiques autochtones en tant que
   droits ancestraux

II. La nature des droits linguistiques autochtones
    A. L'obligation positive de l'Etat comme corollaire
       des droits linguistiques
    B. L'obligation positive decoulant de l'obligation
       fiduciaire
    C. L'obligation positive issue de l'ordre juridique
       international

Conclusion

Introduction

Le present article a pour objet de demontrer que, si l'article 35 de la Loi constitutionnelle de 1982 (1) confere des droits linguistiques aux peuples autochtones du Canada, la Couronne a une obligation positive de proteger les langues autochtones. Cette etude reprend ainsi l'intuition d'auteurs comme Fontaine (2) ou Leitch (3) qui s'entendent pour dire que les principes elabores par la Cour supreme du Canada en matiere de droits relatifs aux langues officie]les, garantis a l'article 23 de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertes (4) (Charte), devraient avoir une certaine application en matiere de droits linguistiques autochtones qui, eux, seraient proteges par l'article 35 de la Loi constitutionnelle de 1982.

Il s'agit de la premiere analyse en profondeur de cette intuition. Fontaine propose une obligation positive qui serait fondee sur une obligation morale de pallier les effets devastateurs qu'ont eu les pensionnats sur les cultures et les langues autochtones.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

La Protection D'une Vitalite Fragile: Les Droits Linguistiques Autochtones En Vertu De L'article 35
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.