How Not to Go Native; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS

Daily Mail (London), November 21, 2013 | Go to article overview

How Not to Go Native; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS


Byline: Compiled by Charles Legge

QUESTION Did Native Americans really say 'How!' to greet one another?

INTERACTION between early European explorers and the native peoples of the Americas was full of misunderstandings and errors, largely resulting from communication problems. Each tribal group had its own language and there were many distinct dialects among widely-dispersed groups such as Ojibwe.

It is known that inter-tribal sign languages were used across most of North America, though the Plains version is the only one recorded in detail.

Early communication between English, Dutch and French explorers and native groups of the Eastern Woodlands relied heavily on signs rather than verbal language.

Some efforts were eventually made to set down native words, such as the Powhatan lexicon written by John Smith and William Strachey between 1612 and 1624 and the Natick-Massachusett dictionary produced by these of the word 'how' or anything like it.

Many of the Iroquoian and Algonquian languages of this area include untranslatable expressions used to encourage a speaker relating a story -- and the Huron term haau was recorded as such by French Jesuit Jean de Brebeuf in the 1630s.

The Oxford English Dictionary points to this word as the origin of 'how', although it certainly wasn't a greeting, and its subsequent transfer into English remains unexplained as the Huron allied themselves firmly with the French.

There are other candidates from further west including the Blackfoot term hau hau! used as a form of salutation along with the more common oki!.

In the unrelated Lakota language, spoken by western Sioux tribes, hau appears as a word for 'yes' or 'hello' used only by men, but always with a relationship term attached: hau kola means 'greetings my fellow warrior society member'.

David Rayner, Canterbury, Kent.

QUESTION What role did the Royal Navy play during the English Civil War?

A KEY cause of the Civil War was King Charles I's levy of Ship Money, a tax first raised in the reign of Elizabeth I, at a time when the Spanish Armada threatened invasion. The Crown levied the tax on the coastal towns of England to help supply ships and crews in defence of the country.

In the 1630s, Charles's profligate spending had left England's coffers empty and his advisors suggested Ship Money could be imposed without infringing the Petition of Right he had signed in 1628 limiting the Crown's tax-levying powers without recourse to Parliament.

In 1634, Ship Money Tax was levied on the coastal towns and the City of London, and raised more than [pounds sterling]100,000 without much protest.

During the autumn of 1635, the tax was imposed on the entire country -- clearly excessive in a time when Britain wasn't under threat of foreign invasion, and many sheriffs objected. Their appeals rejected, they faced the onerous task of extracting money from a population already overburdened by taxation.

In 1637, Parliamentarian John Hampden became a national hero when he was prosecuted for refusing to pay the tax on his lands in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire.

Charles had little, if any, intention of giving the money to the Navy Royal (not called the Royal Navy until the Restoration in 1660). There were 50 menof-war in 1633, but by 1642, the year war broke out, this was down to 42. The bulk of any money actually spent on the Navy went on Charles's vanity project, the 90-gun Sovereign Of The Seas.

When the Civil War began, the fleet, starved of money, declared for Parliament and was a decisive factor in the Parliamentarians winning the war.

Parliament's strength lay in the capital and the south of the country where there was the highest concentration of major sea ports: London, Portsmouth, Southampton, Bristol etc. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

How Not to Go Native; ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.