Dual Sovereignty - Preemption - California Supreme Court Upholds Local Zoning Ban on Medical Marijuana Dispensaries

Harvard Law Review, February 2014 | Go to article overview

Dual Sovereignty - Preemption - California Supreme Court Upholds Local Zoning Ban on Medical Marijuana Dispensaries


DUAL SOVEREIGNTY--PREEMPTION--CALIFORNIA SUPREME COURT UPHOLDS LOCAL ZONING BAN ON MEDICAL MARIJUANA DISPENSARIES. --City of Riverside v. Inland Empire Patients Health & Wellness Center, Inc., 300 P.3d 494 (Cal. 2013).

In 1996, the citizens of California voted to enact Proposition 215 and become one of the first states in the nation to decriminalize medical marijuana. (1) The result was the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 (2) (CUA), expanded and clarified by the legislature in 2003 with the Medical Marijuana program (3) (MMp). recently, in City of Riverside v. Inland Empire Patients Health & Wellness Center, Inc., (4) the California Supreme Court upheld a local zoning ban on medical marijuana dispensaries, despite these state laws. The court read both the state laws and the state preemption test narrowly, avoiding the more delicate question of whether California's decriminalization of medical marijuana is preempted by the federal Controlled Substances Act (5) (CSA). Thus, by allowing Riverside to restrict its own residents' medical mar-ijuana access, the California Supreme Court may have forestalled more significant challenges to California's legalization project at large.

Inland Empire Patients Health and Wellness Center (Inland Empire) had operated a medical marijuana dispensary in Riverside, California, since 2009. (6) Located in a commercial district and composed of the many colorful stalls of various sellers of cannabis products, inland Empire said it operated "for the sole purpose of forming an association of qualified individuals who collectively cultivate medical marijuana and redistribute [it] to each other." (7) The same year it began operations, Inland Empire was put on notice by Riverside's Community Development Department that its medical marijuana operations were locally banned. (8) As Inland Empire continued to operate, the city moved for a preliminary injunction. (9) The state trial court granted the injunction against inland Empire and a host of other named and unnamed defendants, reasoning that Riverside's zoning regulations were particularly appropriate in light of the federal-state conflict over medical marijuana. (10)

California's Fourth District Court of Appeal affirmed. (11) Writing for the panel, Justice Codrington (12) held that California state law did not preempt a municipal zoning ordinance's complete ban on medical marijuana dispensaries, and thus the granting of a preliminary injunction was proper on the ground that inland Empire constituted a public nuisance per se. (13) She identified a presumption in favor of upholding municipal zoning ordinances, placing upon the defendants the burden of proving that the local law was preempted. (14) Noting that neither the CUA nor the MMP expressly refers to local zoning laws, (15) that the CUA expressly declines to preempt laws prohibiting conduct that endangers others, (16) and that the MMP sanctions only "lawful" medical marijuana dispensaries, (17) Justice Codrington comfortably concluded that the local zoning ban was valid. (18)

The Supreme Court of California affirmed. (19) Writing for a unanimous court, Justice Baxter held that Riverside's total ban on medical marijuana dispensaries was not preempted by California's medical marijuana laws. (20) He opened his analysis with a summary of the federal CSA's classification of marijuana as a Schedule I substance and its provision that marijuana has "no currently accepted medical use," (21) and characterized California state law as "similar[]" to federal law except for certain "limited exceptions." (22) Noting that the federal law is still fully enforceable, he declined to weigh in on whether this apparent federal-state conflict could justify Riverside's total ban. (23)

Justice Baxter then proceeded to frame the discussion of state preemption of local law. He explained that the exercise of local police power is expressly recognized in the California Constitution and thus presumptively valid--especially where significant local interests may vary--unless in conflict with state law. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Dual Sovereignty - Preemption - California Supreme Court Upholds Local Zoning Ban on Medical Marijuana Dispensaries
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.