La Relativite Aquilienne En Droit De la Responsabilite Civile - Analyse Comparee Des Systemes Germanique, Canadien et Quebecois

By Lacroix, Marieve | McGill Law Journal, December 2013 | Go to article overview

La Relativite Aquilienne En Droit De la Responsabilite Civile - Analyse Comparee Des Systemes Germanique, Canadien et Quebecois


Lacroix, Marieve, McGill Law Journal


The author explores the theory of Aquilian relativity through comparative law in order to spur and foster a dialogue with the Quebec civilian system. She assesses the possibility of importing this theory into personal extra-contractual liability in Quebec.

First, the author outlines the theory of Aquilian relativity from a historical and comparative perspective.

Second, the author uses German civil law and Canadian common law as examples of the instrumentalisation of Aquilian relativity. Although these systems employ distinct mechanisms, they both restrict the scope of application of extra-contractual liability. Indeed, if Aquilian relativity theory is rooted in the German civil code, specifically in the formulation of article 823 BGB, which frames various legislative provisions as "small" general clauses of liability, it finds expression through the tort of negligence and the idea of tortious interference with rights within the Canadian common law.

Third, finding that no major obstacles to Aquilian relativity exist within Quebec civil law, the author gauges the willingness to shift toward such a relative conception of extra-contractual liability. The author provides a technique to effect this shift, which involves identifying both the appropriate mechanisms to reasonably constrain the boundaries of extra-contractual liability, and the proper location for the application of these mechanisms within the Quebec legal order.

L'auteure explore la theorie de la relativite aquilienne en droit compare afin d'entamer, voire de nourrir un dialogue avec le systeme civiliste quebecois. Elle jauge les potentialites d'une importation de la doctrine de la relativite aquilienne en matiere de responsabilite extracontractuelle personnelle au Quebec.

Dans une premiere partie, l'auteure expose la doctrine de la relativite aquilienne dans une perspective historique et comparatiste.

Dans une deuxieme partie, elle prend pour illustration le droit civil allemand et la common law canadienne, car ils emploient des mecanismes distincts, mais qui convergent a restreindre le champ d'application de la responsabilite civile. Si la theorie de la relativite aquilienne puise ses racines dans la formule du Code civil allemand, notamment a l'article 823 BGB, qui edicte diverses dispositions legislatives en tant que << petites >> clauses generales de responsabilite, elle s'exprime a travers le delit de negligence et l'idee d'interference des droits dans la common law canadienne.

Dans une troisieme partie, prenant parti qu'il n'y a pas d'obstacle dirimant a la relativite aquilienne en droit quebecois, elle sonde la volonte de favoriser une conception relative de la responsabilite civile. Le cas echeant, il est permis de s'arreter sur la technique, laquelle commande d'identifier les mecanismes qui peuvent contenir dans des bornes raisonnables le perimetre de la responsabilite civile au Quebec, ainsi que de situer ces mecanismes.

Introduction

I.   La doctrine de la relativite aquilienne
II.  Une exploration de la relativite aquilienne dans le systeme
     civiliste allemand et le systeme de common law canadienne
     A. Le systeme civiliste allemand : les interets proteges
     B. Le systeme de conunon la w canadieime : le delit de
        negligence et le duty of care
     C. In finalite convergente du systeme civiliste allemand
        et de la common law canadieime : limiter le spectre
        de la responsabilite
III. Pour une reconnaissance de la relativite aquilienne dans
     le systeme civiliste quebecois?
     A. La volonte d'adopter une conception relative de la
        responsabilite
     B. La technique a adopter pour fa voriser une conception
        relativ e de la responsabilite
        1. Les mecanismes propres a circonscrire les cas
           d'application de la responsabilite civile
        a. L'emergence de la notion d'illiceite en droit de la
           responsabilite civile
        b. … 

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