Local Government Benchmarking: Lessons from Two Major Multigovernment Efforts

By Coe, Charles | Public Administration Review, March 1999 | Go to article overview

Local Government Benchmarking: Lessons from Two Major Multigovernment Efforts


Coe, Charles, Public Administration Review


Benchmarking and performance measurement are increasingly "hot" subjects among public administrators. A brief historical summary of events illustrates this point. In 1992 the Urban Institute and the International City/County Management Association (ICMA) jointly published the book How Effective Are Your Community Services? Procedures for Promoting Results. In 1992 the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) promoted performance measurement by approving a Resolution Encouraging the Use of Performance Measurement and Reporting for Government Organizations. At the federal level, in 1993 Congress adopted the Government and Performance and Results Act requiring all federal agencies to develop one-year performance plans and five-year strategic plans. In 1994 the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) circulated for comment a proposal that local governments include measures of service effort and accomplishment in their external reporting.

Among research-based efforts sparked by the performance measurement drive are two projects that attempt to develop uniform measures so that managers can compare the performance of different city and county governments. In 1993, the Large City Executive Forum, an association of city managers in jurisdictions with more than a 200,000 population, joined with ICMA to form the Comparative Performance Measurement Consortium. Initially comprising of 34 jurisdictions, the group eventually grew to 44 cities and counties. The managers in the consortium initially decided to compare performance in four service areas: fire, police, neighborhood services, and support services.

In contrast to ICMA's national project, the second project is limited to a single state, North Carolina. In 1994 the budget director of Winston-Salem, concerned about the inaccuracy of intergovernmental service comparisons being made among the large North Carolina cities, proposed to the North Carolina Local Government Budget Association that interested members of the association undertake a performance measurement project. These governments, working with the staff of the Institute of Government (IOG) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, began an extensive effort in 1995.

This article compares the methodology used in the ICMA and IOG projects. The results from each project suggest strongly that benchmarking performance results among local governments may be more difficult than theorized. Successfully comparing costs (inputs) requires that a comprehensive cost accounting system be created. The IOG project established such a system, collecting direct costs, indirect costs, equipment costs, and facilities costs. In contrast, the ICMA project collected only direct costs. Likewise, measuring outcomes is surprisingly difficult because definitions differ widely. Both these benchmarking efforts suggest ways of overcoming these difficulties. This article will begin with a brief overview of each benchmarking effort. It will then look at the often unexpected obstacles they encountered and how they attempted to surmount them. It will conclude with some broader lessons that these experiences suggest for local government benchmarking.

The IOG Project's Methodology

After the IOG project was proposed in North Carolina, representatives from several large cities and counties and staff from the Institute of Government, the North Carolina League of Municipalities, and the North Carolina Association of County Commissioners formed a steering committee to prepare a project proposal. In 1995 the IOG hired a project coordinator. Seven large cities, seven large counties, and 14 medium-sized and small cities and counties agreed to participate in the project (the participation fee was $3,000). The steering committee divided the project into three phases. Phase 1, which included the seven large cities, was completed in September 1997; Phases 2 and 3, which included the large counties and smaller governments, ended in 1998. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Local Government Benchmarking: Lessons from Two Major Multigovernment Efforts
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.