Does It Matter How Hard the Work Is?

By Jackson, Cecile; Palmer-Jones, Richard | UN Chronicle, Fall 1999 | Go to article overview

Does It Matter How Hard the Work Is?


Jackson, Cecile, Palmer-Jones, Richard, UN Chronicle


Promotion of labour intensive work raises the demand for the endowment that the poor have, and may be a cost-effective means to raising entitlements to the commodities required to meet basic needs. Raising women's income through employment may be especially beneficial, given greater propensity to spend their income on health, nutrition and education for their children. Social welfare services targeted on women enhance these synergies and may be empowering in both tactical and strategic ways. Participation in wage employment and home-based productive work can raise the perceived contribution and social valuation and inclusion of women. Like labour-intensive employment, self-targeting through the labour test also works through the labour endowment of the poor, since it should screen out those who are better off. Similarly, technologies such as the treadle pump in Bangladesh, which uses human labour to pump irrigation water, can be expected to be attractive to people willing to work physically hard for relativel y low returns, either on land they cultivate themselves or as wage labourers for others. They may also be environmentally-friendly, in that the use of fossil fuel is reduced. This consensus gives rise to concerns about additional burdens that women may consequently face.

Employment and participation in social welfare and targeted safety net programmes will make additional demands on the time of already burdened women; time-use studies typically show the long (and longer than male) working hours of women. It is also often argued that poor women are relatively deprived of food and other basic needs by gendered inequalities in intra-household allocations of consumption, expenditure on health, work burden and so on. We suggest that "effort" may well be the more appropriate concept to assess the burden of work than time, and its productivity, especially for nutritionally challenged persons. Employment and safety nets, which are effort-intensive, may not contribute so much to the reduction of poverty as similar activities that are less effort-intensive; after all, the main objective must be interventions that are entitlement- or capability-intensive The poor may be more burdened by the effort to reward ratio of livelihood activities (their low productivity), given their capabiliti es, than they are by time constraints. The two accounts are not incompatible, perhaps, if it is their low capability to exert effort that forces the poor to adopt a slow work pace which then makes time the limiting factor.

Time is a metric that is common to everyone, and "time famine" is reflected in longer working hours of women and their concentration in household and reproductive activities. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Does It Matter How Hard the Work Is?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.