What Does It Take to Have a Positive Impact on Minority Students' College Retention?

By Newman, Philip R.; Newman, Barbara M. | Adolescence, Fall 1999 | Go to article overview

What Does It Take to Have a Positive Impact on Minority Students' College Retention?


Newman, Philip R., Newman, Barbara M., Adolescence


ABSTRACT

This paper describes the Young Scholars Program (YSP), which seeks to expand the pool of African American and other underrepresented minority youth who aspire to attend college, and to help them meet entrance requirements and successfully obtain a college degree. Quarter-by-quarter data for the first two groups of YSP students entering The Ohio State University were promising. Their retention rates approximated university averages, while comparison groups showed lower levels of retention. It was concluded that the many facets of the Young Scholars Program, as well as the students' positive reputation among family members, peers, and teachers, produced strong motivation, ability, and determination to succeed.

High school graduation rates among African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans have been increasing over the past decade. However, enrollment of these minority groups in public, baccalaureate degree granting institutions has never been proportional to their presence in the high school population, and college graduation rates continue to lag behind those of Anglos (Richardson, 1990). In 1993, the disparity in college entrance rates (including community colleges, junior colleges, and universities) for Anglo and African American high school graduates was 13%; the disparity was 8% for Anglo and Hispanic high school graduates. In 1994, the disparity in degree completion (including associate, bachelor of arts or science, and graduate or professional degrees) between Anglo and African American students was 16%; between Anglo and Hispanic students the disparity was 18% (National Educational Goals Panel, 1995).

The drop-off in the educational attainment of African Americans and Hispanics is, at times, extreme. For example, data reveal that of 100 African American children who start high school, only 86 graduate. Of 100 African American high school seniors, only 10 go on to receive a bachelor's degree. Further, from 1975 to 1990, Ph.D.s awarded to African Americans dropped slightly, from 999 to 828. African Americans garnered just 3.5% of all doctorates in 1990 (Thurgood & Weinman, 1991). At The Ohio State University, despite many innovative recruitment initiatives and support services, the graduation rates of African Americans and Hispanics have continued to be about half that of Anglo students over the past fifteen years. This pattern is common in many public universities (Sailes, 1993).

Models of student retention and persistence suggest that degree completion is a result of the interaction of three classes of factors: (1) factors that precede college enrollment, such as attendance at a college-oriented high school, parents' educational background, family's educational values and goals, the intention to attend college, clarity of career goals, and high school course work and grades; (2) factors related to the college or university, including availability of financial aid or other financial support, academic climate, availability of tutoring, student orientation of the faculty, acceptance into a degree-granting program, availability of required courses, housing and roommate arrangements, and access to a mentor and/or academic advisor; and (3) factors related to personal development, such as level of identity resolution, the ability to balance various demands (emanating from work, classes, extracurricular activities, social life, and family), degree of homesickness, feelings of alienation or social isolation, academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy, and the ability to seek out and obtain social and academic support (Stage, 1989; House, 1992; Astin, 1993; Castle, 1993; Tinto, 1993).

THE YOUNG SCHOLARS PROGRAM

The Young Scholars Program (YSP) seeks to expand the pool of African American and other underrepresented minority youth who aspire to attend college, and to help them meet entrance requirements and successfully obtain a college degree. The program focuses on public school students in the major urban areas of Ohio. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

What Does It Take to Have a Positive Impact on Minority Students' College Retention?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.