Ethnic Differences in Std) Rates among Female Adolescents

By Buzi, Ruth S.; Weimnan, Maxine L. et al. | Adolescence, Summer 1998 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Ethnic Differences in Std) Rates among Female Adolescents


Buzi, Ruth S., Weimnan, Maxine L., Smith, Peggy B., Adolescence


ABSTRACT

Ethnic differences in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were examined in a sample of 205 female adolescents receiving care at two family planning clinics in Houston, Texas. New infection and reinfection rates following treatment were also investigated. Black teens had a higher rate of past STDs than did Hispanic or White teens. However, there were no differences in rates at the time of the clinic visit. Of the 143 (69.8%) teens who returned for follow-up care, 21 (14.7%) had new infections; Black teens had the highest rate. The findings indicated that programs for teens need to address cultural, ethnic, and gender issues.

Adolescents in general and minority adolescents in particular have significantly higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than do other groups. According to a study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1993a), every year three million teens (one out of every eight) are infected with an STD. Approximately 24-30% of gonorrhea cases reported in 1981 through 1991 were among adolescents. Some of the highest rates were for 15- to 19-year-old Black females. Further, adolescents accounted for 10-12% of reported primary and secondary syphilis cases. Syphilis rates for Black female adolescents increased more than 150% from 1986 to 1990, compared with increases of less than 50% for other ethnic groups. In addition, chlamydia rates were significantly higher among Black females than among White females (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993b). Rates of STD reinfection have also been found to be higher among minorities (Richert et al., 1993). STD reinfections are particularly serious b ecause they increase susceptibility to HIV (Rosenberg & Gollub, 1992).

Number of sexual partners and lack of condom use are considered the most significant factors in STD exposure. As the number of sexual partners increases, the cumulative risk for contracting an STD from an infected partner rises (Millstein, Moscicki, & Broering, 1993). Further, adolescents have been found not to use condoms consistently (Hingson, Strunin, & Berlin, 1990; Kegeles, Adler, & Irwin, 1988). Although rates of condom use are low for all teenagers, rates for Black and Hispanic teens are markedly lower than those for White teens. Data from the 1988 National Survey of Family Growth indicate that among females aged 15-19, 51% of Whites have used condoms as compared with 41% of Hispanics and 35% of Blacks. It has also been found that Black and Hispanic females are less likely than White females to have sexual partners who always use condoms (Catania et al., 1992; Marin & Marin, 1992).

Information about sexual behavior is critical if effective educational programs for high-risk sexually active adolescents are to be implemented. Unfortunately, the relationship between ethnicity and sexual behavior, especially among minority adolescents, has received scant attention. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether ethnicity is a factor in adolescent females' STD infection and reinfection rates.

METHOD

Subjects

The sample consisted of 205 female adolescents who sought care at either of two teen health clinics. The clinics, located in public county hospitals in Houston, Texas, provide primary and reproductive health care services, including family planning, STD testing and treatment, pregnancy testing, school physicals, HIV testing and counseling, EPSDT (early periodic screening, detection, and treatment), and health education. Females between the ages of 13 and 20 years who had an STD at the time of the clinic visit (between December 1992 and July 1993) were recruited to participate in the study.

Procedure

Adolescents were screened for gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, pubic lice, herpes, and condyloma. Tests for these infections included VDRL and Gonostat; an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tested for HIV antibodies.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Ethnic Differences in Std) Rates among Female Adolescents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.