Progress by Integration

By Macosko, Evan | Harvard International Review, Summer 2000 | Go to article overview

Progress by Integration


Macosko, Evan, Harvard International Review


Helping Russian Science

Though all Russian institutions have suffered tremendously during the transition to democracy and capitalism, few organizations have endured as much hardship as the scientific establishment.

Ten years ago Russia's 1.5 million researchers were the largest scientific force in the world. Today these same scientists form a poorly organized community whose situation continues to deteriorate. Unfortunately, the conservatism of many members of Russia's scientific hierarchy and the near bankruptcy of the central government have seriously limited the prospects for remodeling the outdated Soviet research system. Despite these obstacles, many scientists are taking steps to reverse the decline of their institutions.

Today, Russia's scientific establishment is in disarray. During the mid-1990s, in a movement that became known as Russia's "brain drain," thousands of scientists left their research posts in search of better-paying or more prestigious jobs in the private sector or in other countries. Researchers who remained in Russia discovered that its institutions were antiquated: the new and supposedly improved Russian Academy of Science (RAS), for example, was nearly identical to its Soviet predecessor, the Academy of Science. Funding was already scarce, but it continued to fall as both domestic and foreign contributions disappeared. Meanwhile, the number of private universities increased, providing greater competition with the aging state system.

Despite the troubles of modern Russian science, there have been attempts by many policymakers to restore Russia's past scientific glory. The most recent attempt is a project called Integration that is endorsed by Russia's new Science Minister, Mikhail Kirpichnikov. The advocates of Integration hope that it will reform key areas of Russia's scientific infrastructure without angering reactionary elements--more traditional scientists--within the scientific research community.

Integration began in the mid-1990s as an attempt by the Russian government to increase communication between private universities and state-run academies. Concern with Russia's inability to adapt to the methods and systems of Western science has led to strong support for Integration from both the Russian Education Ministry and from foreign institutions such as the Carnegie and MacArthur Foundations. Kirpichnikov has increased the government's annual contribution to US$32 million and has set aside funds to buy equipment for new RAS-university cooperatives called Centers of Excellence. Unfortunately, funding still does not fully meet Integration's goals, and of the more than 300 Centers originally established, only 30 are expected to survive to the end of this year. Nevertheless, the Centers represent a step forward, and Integration maintains a variety of other programs designed to break down the divisions within Russian science and to make the research establishment competitive with the Western world.

The most formidable structural problem within Russia's research system is the lack of coordination and organization among its many components. Most Russian research is still conducted in state-run academies that rely on support from the government; currently, 90 percent of all research dollars come from the public sector. This system contrasts with the US system of private university research that relies much less on public funding for support. Unlike the academies, which do not offer courses to students, the private universities provide greater interaction between students and scientists, now considered by the West to be a major criterion for successful research. Since Russian scientists must choose between research or teaching, the division between research and teaching staffs has spread Russia's human resources thin.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Progress by Integration
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.