Preponderance of Lead Voice Onset Times in Stutterers under Varying Constraints

By Viswanath, Nagalapura S.; Rosenfield, David B. | Communication Disorders Quarterly, Fall 2000 | Go to article overview

Preponderance of Lead Voice Onset Times in Stutterers under Varying Constraints


Viswanath, Nagalapura S., Rosenfield, David B., Communication Disorders Quarterly


Differences between stutterers and nonstutterers in temporal organization of fluent speech may offer clues to the elemental basis of fully elaborated, perceptible stuttering events. Guided by this hypothesis, we investigated voice onset time--the interval between voice onset and upper articulatory stop release--in voiced stop consonants under varying constraints. Under variation of rate, lexical stress location, and location of key words beginning with voiced stops, the stutterers realized voiced stops by voicing before release (prevoicing), whereas the controls realized voiced stops by voicing following the release. The significance of this phonetic strategy difference for understanding and treating stuttering is discussed.

The study of timing and sequencing of gestures underlying the fluent and disfluent speech of stutterers has gained impetus with recent advances in speech technology and models of speech production. The issue of timing has been raised in relation to (a) perceptible stuttering events such as part-word repetitions (Viswanath & Neel, 1995) and (b) perceptibly fluent utterances (e.g., Agnello, 1975; Hillman & Gilbert, 1977; Zimmerman, 1980). Partly as consequence of these studies, several researchers have suggested that stutterers' intermittent (perceptible) speech breakdowns, frequently recognized as "moments of stuttering," are but the tip of the iceberg (Adams & Runyan, 1981, Zebrowski, Conture, & Cudahy, 1985). This suggestion carries the strong implication that even when stutterers appear to be fluent, they may be subtly aberrant. Consistent with this suggestion, Viswanath (1989) and Viswanath and Rosenfield (1991) proposed that such subtle aberrancies are likely in utterance locations where stutterers typically experience their greatest difficulty, namely, the beginning of words in relation to variables such as lexical stress, rate, and word location that predispose stutterers to stutter.

Under this general rubric, several investigators (Agnello & Wingate, 1972; Hillman & Gilbert, 1977; Jancke, 1994; Metz, Conture, & Caruso, 1979; Watson & Alfonso, 1982) have examined voice onset times (VOT) in perceptibly fluent speech of stutterers. VOT is defined as the interval between onset of two gestures during the course of a stop production:

1. onset of vocal fold vibrations and

2. its upper articulatory release (Lisker & Abramson, 1964; see Note).

As a measure of intergestural temporal coordination, VOT has many things to recommend it:

1. It is a well-recognized articulatory dimension underlying voiced-voiceless distinctions of stops in many languages.

2. It can be easily and reliably measured using acoustic techniques.

3. It is a well-researched dimension in the initial syllables of words.

This is a fortunate circumstance for stuttering research because the beginning of words is the most likely location for stuttering disruption (Wingate, 1979).

Generally, VOT studies in stutterers were explicitly or implicitly motivated by the following question: "How fast a stutter begins voicing after stop release?" The idea was that slower onset of voicing signals laryngeal involvement that serves as a basis for discoordination (Agnello & Wingate, 1972; Healy & Gutkin, 1984; Hillman & Gilbert, 1977; Jancke, 1994; Metz et al., 1979; Watson & Alfonso, 1982). Thus, Watson and Alfonso used the simple reaction time paradigm to compare initiation of voicing to a response-and-stop release to a signal. Because the question mentioned above determines the design of a study, the bulk of the research on VOT in stutterers has involved the study of long- and short-lag VOTs of voiceless and voiced stops. Researchers have neglected the lead VOT continuum in their investigations. Because English permits alternative realizations of fluent voiced stops, either with lead or short-lag VOTs, it is interesting to ask whether stutterers show a preference for either of the two strategies. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Preponderance of Lead Voice Onset Times in Stutterers under Varying Constraints
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.