Purposes in Learner Assessment

By Ediger, Marlow | Journal of Instructional Psychology, December 2000 | Go to article overview

Purposes in Learner Assessment


Ediger, Marlow, Journal of Instructional Psychology


There are a plethora of ways that pupils may to assessed to notice achievement. Certainly, assessment is a major topic for discussion in the educational arena. There seemingly is much testing to notice pupil progress. With diverse means of attempting to ascertain achievement, it behooves teachers, administrators, parents, and support staff to be able to use test results to implement a quality curriculum based on needs and interests of pupils. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate uses that can be made of different kinds of tests given to determine pupil achievement.

Standardized Achievement Tests

Many school systems and selected states in the United States give standardized tests to pupils. Seemingly, there are numerous weaknesses in giving this type of test to pupils to measure achievement. First of all, validity is lacking in that pupils have not had the opportunities to learn what is contained in the test in terms of subject matter to be assessed in. Thus, there are no accompanying objectives for teachers to use in teaching so that pupils may reveal what has been learned as a result of instruction. Teachers then need to hypothesize and listen to other educators discuss, from having given the test to pupils, as to what might have been contained therein in terms of subject matter content. There are no objectives for educators to gauge their own teaching as benchmarks (Ediger, 1996, 3-25).

A major goal of achievement test writers is to spread pupils out from high to low or from the ninetieth percentile to the first percentile. In pilot studies made, a good test item is gotten right by those high on the total test. A mediocre test item is one that pupils got right and who were low on the total test. Popham (1999) writes that "the better the job that educators do in teaching important knowledge and skills, the less likely it is that there will be items on a standardized achievement test measuring such knowledge and skills." This is due to to taking out items, from pilot studies, to which most pupils responded correctly. Important test items may then be removed from a standardized test due to not discriminating the "right way" in pilot studies. Popham goes on to write about three kinds of test items that appear on standardized tests. The first kind deal with test items that do attempt to measure achievement in the academic discipline being or having been taught in school. This is the way it should be. However, there are also test items on a standardized test that measure native intelligence, as well as those test items that measure previous opportunities to learn which definitely favors pupils who come from higher socioeconomic levels (Ediger, 1999, Chapter Nine).

Verbal intelligence is emphasized in written test items. Thus reading and writing are largely stressed in test taking. Gardner (1993) emphasizes the importance of eight intelligences that pupils possess and verbal/ linguistic intelligence is one of these intelligences. Not all pupils reveal what has been learned through verbal/linguistic intelligence as being as possessing the major way to indicate learning. Gardner (1993) also lists the following:

1. logical/mathematical whereby a pupil may show his/her strengths in learning through these ways, regardless of subject matter acquired.

2. visual/spatial in which pupils excel in art work to indicate achievement of objectives stressed in teaching.

3. musical whereby a pupil indicates achievement of subject matter through the medium of musical endeavors.

4. bodily/kinesthetic indicating strengths in physical education, dance, and movement experiences to indicate what has been learned.

5. interpersonal intelligence where by a pupil reveals achievement best within group or collaborative endeavors.

6. intrapersonal intelligence which tends to stress more optimal achievement of pupils when learning on an individual basis.

7. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Purposes in Learner Assessment
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.