The Complex Relations between the Academy and Industry

By Anderson, Melissa S. | Journal of Higher Education, March 2001 | Go to article overview

The Complex Relations between the Academy and Industry


Anderson, Melissa S., Journal of Higher Education


Views from the Literature

The attention of the popular press and other media is drawn to universities, as to other institutions, when something goes wrong. As the press produces more articles and news stories about connections between universities and business or industry, the perception that these alliances are problematic intensifies. It seems that relationships with industry, or more generally a shift in the academic world to a more commercial perspective, offers countless new ways in which universities can get themselves into trouble.

A more measured view of academy-industry relations (AIRs) appears in three recent books on the subject. All three share the perspective that AIRs are significantly changing academic institutions worldwide, that these changes are for practical purposes irreversible, and that they affect fundamental aspects of academic work and the ways in which it is accomplished. This article explores the findings and perspectives presented in these three books and related literature and provides a status-quo report on the state of our understanding of academy-industry relations and their effects on higher education.

The three books on which this report is based are Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University, by Sheila Slaughter and Larry L. Leslie (1997); Capitalizing Knowledge: New Intersections of Industry and Academia, edited by Henry Etzkowitz, Andrew Webster, and Peter Healey (1998); and Universities for Sale: Resisting Corporate Control over Canadian Higher Education, by Neil Tudiver (1999). These books all offer cross-national perspectives on universities' relationships with industry. Slaughter and Leslie employ various theories, levels of analysis, and cross-national comparisons to study academy-industry relations in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. They explore the ascendancy of AIRs in relation to globalization and reductions in government block grants to higher education. The Etzkowitz et al. volume is a collection of articles most of which were originally prepared for a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop on university-industry relations i n Acquafredda, Italy, in 1991. It addresses theoretical issues, varieties of AIRs, and international comparisons. Tudiver's book focuses on the emergence of AIRs in Canada, with particular attention to the role of unions in deflecting adverse effects of AIRs in universities.

What Is "It"?

Academy-industry relations encompass a wide range of activities, structures, and concepts. In a general sense, they involve an exchange of resources, ideas, or influence between some unit within a university (possibly even an individual) and some for-profit entity or subunit thereof. Etzkowitz and Webster (1998, p. 30) list thirty-three formal collaborations, all multiyear, multimillion-dollar programs that link a single company with a university, beginning with the famous arrangement between Harvard Medical School and Monsanto over a quarter century ago. Though such arrangements, usually in biotechnology or pharmacology, come to mind as major examples of AIRs, limiting a discussion of connections between higher education and the corporate sector to these major collaborations would do a serious disservice to the literature and the reality of AIRs, for several reasons.

First, AIRs take on a wide variety of forms in addition to contractual relationships between a single research university and a corporation. Included in the general category of AIRs are technology transfer, spinoff companies based on academic research, patenting, and licensing of academic research, research parks and other collocational arrangements, and consulting. For the purposes of this analysis, the acronym "AIRs" will also signify a more general view of entrepreneurial perspectives and initiatives within higher education, as described below.

Second, the parties to AIRs often cannot be listed simply as a research university and a corporation. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Complex Relations between the Academy and Industry
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.