Prevenir L'exurbanisation: Le Plan Greber De 1950 Pour Montreal [1]

By M'Bala, Jose | Urban History Review, March 2001 | Go to article overview

Prevenir L'exurbanisation: Le Plan Greber De 1950 Pour Montreal [1]


M'Bala, Jose, Urban History Review


Resume

Cet article Presente un projet allant a contre-courant de la tendance de fond qui, sous la poussee des forces centrifuges, allait engendrer une forme urbaine eclatee comme modele de croissance dans la region de Montreal. Dans son projet, Jacques Greber privilegie la consolidation du tissu urbain, en suggerant une urbanisation continue et centree qui rappelle le design d'une agglomeration fonctionnant sous l'impulsion d'une force centripete dominante, ici le port de Montreal et les activites connexes de l'industrie. En enfermant les zones desservies dans des perimetres d'agglomeration, une pratique codifiee par la loi a la fin des annees 1970 (LAU),Jacques Greber voulait proteger les espaces libres et les terres agricoles contre un envahissement incontrole. Meme si ses propositions semblaient etre venues tard pour empecber la saignee demographique de Montreal, la ville-centre, elles arrivaient cependant a point pour l'ile de Montreal et ses environs ou l'urbanisation etait encore tres limitee. En l'absence du rapport explicatif du plan Greber pour Montreal (1950), son interpretation est faite sur le plan theorique, en reference aux principes de la Charte d'Athenes; et sur le plan methodologique, par rapport aux autres plans de Jacques Greber pour les regions d'Ottawa et de Quebec. Le caractere detaille des plan et rapport d'Ottawa (1950) et la precision du rapport du plan man quant de Quebec (1956), tous deux contemporains au projet de Montreal, justifient leur utilisation comme base d'analyse de celui-ci.

Abstract

This paper is a case study of a project that runs counter to the belief that urban sprawl is the unique model of growth for Montreal, a belief based on the concept that its burgeoning centre exerts a centrifugal force that must necessarily engulf the outlying region. Jacques Greber's plans provide a functional alternative by which those very elements of the urban fabric that give rise to a unified and human-centred urban agglomeration can have the opposite effect of creating centripetal forces of attraction, centred inward toward the port of Montreal and its related industrial activities. Accordingly, by creating urban neighbourhoods within a perimeter of the services that supply these nodes, a practice adopted toward the end of the 1970s (LAU), Jacques Greber has attempted to protect open and agricultural spaces against uncontrolled invasion. Consequently, even if his proposal appears to have arrived too late to prevent the demographic spillover from Montreal region's urban core, it was nonetheless very time ly for the Island of Montreal and surrounding area, where urban growth was still very limited. However, in the absence of the explanatory report of this plan, its interpretation is based on the theoretical framework of the Athens Charter, and methodologically, to other Greber plans for Ottawa (1950) and Quebec (1956). The detailed plan and report for Ottawa, and the accuracy of the report for the missing Quebec plan, which appeared at the same time period as the Montreal plan, justify their use as a basis for this analysis.

Introduction

Au moment ou Ottawa fetait le cinquantenaire du projet d'amenagement de la capitale nationale propose par Jacques Greber, il nous paraissait necessaire, compte tenu du debat actuel sur la regionalisation, de rappeler d'autres projets a contenu canadien etudies par cet urbaniste francais [2]. En effet, le projet d'amenagement de Quebec et sa region et le plan d'ensemble de l'etat futur a Montreal rappellent tout autant la contribution de M. Greber au rayonnement de l'amenagement urbain et regional au Canada ou il a marque l'urbanisme de facon decisive. Cependant, hormis ses travaux a Ottawa ou le plan d'amenagement est abondamment documente et accompagne d'un rapport bien detaille, on se trouve aujourd'hui, pour ses etudes a Montreal et a Quebec devant une symetrie renversee. II existe un plan pour Montreal, sans rapport d'accompagnement, tandis que le plan manquant de Quebec est confirme par l'existence d'un rapport bien explicite [3]. …

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