Population and Environment Issues in Nepal and the Need for Community Development Policy

By Dahal, Govinda Prasad | Contributions to Nepalese Studies, January 2000 | Go to article overview

Population and Environment Issues in Nepal and the Need for Community Development Policy


Dahal, Govinda Prasad, Contributions to Nepalese Studies


Introduction

It is widely recognised that environment, economy and social well-being are inextricably linked (Ness and Golay 1997; UNCED 1992). In Nepal, the livelihood of the rapidly growing population and the national economy mainly rely on forests and agriculture [United Nations Development Programme Nepal (UNDP/Nepal)] 1997; Central Bureau of Statistics/Nepal (CBS/Nepal) 1995). Concomitant with population growth, governmental initiatives for a faster development of infrastructure base such as construction of roads, irrigation dams, hydroelectric projects, and housing exert pressure on the country's forest and agricultural land (Pant and Acharya 1988; Soussan et al. 1995) which is increasingly associated with long-term environmental degradation (UNCED 1992).

Progress in preventing long-term degradation requires effective policies (World Bank 1997: 1). The government of Nepal has expressed growing commitment to combating the population and environmental problems in the country. It has established national institutions such as the Ministry of Population and Environment, formulated and revised laws regarding forest resource management and adopted an antinatalist population policy [National Planning Commission (NPC) 1997]. However, despite the government's effort the achievements have so far remained well below expectations (Gonzalez 1990; Subedi 1995). One major reason for this failure is the lack of effective community empowerment policy (World Bank 1997: 1; McNicoll 1975: 1).

The analytical framework given below presents the population and environment relationships in the form of a flow diagram (Diagram 1). It identifies four factors influencing land use change. Population dynamics and economic and infrastructure development activities are major causes of change in land use pattern. The policy of central government and the response of local community groups are also directly associated with the change in the pattern.

The changing land use pattern is in turn associated with environmental degradation. The framework attempts to depict linkages between population dynamics, economic and infrastructure development activities and land use, which are influenced by policies and regulations of the Central government and by the activities of local community groups. The resulting intended and unintended ecological consequences, in turn, would affect the land use pattern, population dynamics and central government policy.

The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to describe the changing relationships between population and environment in Nepal in terms of the changing pattern of land use, because land use change is often a precursor to degradation (UNCED 1992). The paper also aims to analyse the changing pattern of land use in terms of population pressure, socio-economic development and government policies and to discuss the environmental consequences of the changing pattern of land use. The paper also draws out the population and environment policy implications of the above analysis and makes some recommendations with regard to community development policy. The paper begins with a comment on available data on land use, then outlines changing patterns of land use, its causes and ecological consequences. It then reviews and comments on the government's population and environmental policies in the past and considers the potential value of a community empowerment policy for achieving ecologically sustainable land use practices.

Date on Land Use

The discussion of changing population and environment relations with regard to land use in Nepal is hampered because detailed and comprehensive data are unavailable (UNCED 1992). The survey of the Land Resource Mapping Project (LRMP) of the Water and Energy Commission which provides data for 1978/79 undertaken by LRMP (1986), still provides the latest land use information (Table 1). However, this survey alone cannot provide all land use information. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Population and Environment Issues in Nepal and the Need for Community Development Policy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.