Bad News for Boys: Linking Hypospadias and Endocrine Disruptors. (Science Selections)

By Wakefield, Julie | Environmental Health Perspectives, November 2001 | Go to article overview

Bad News for Boys: Linking Hypospadias and Endocrine Disruptors. (Science Selections)


Wakefield, Julie, Environmental Health Perspectives


Hypospadias, or the arrested development of several parts of the penis, including the urethra, foreskin, and ventral surface, is usually not a topic for public discussion. But a review of research on the condition points to a link between hypospadias and endocrine-disrupting chemicals, one that Laurence Baskin of the University of California at San Francisco and colleagues are working to bring to the attention of the public and the public health community [EHP 109:1175-1183]. In their review article in this issue, the scientists conclude that the link between hypospadias, which occurs in 1 of every 125 live male births in the United States, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals is a strong one, while environmental estrogens appear to not be involved. They also suggest that an antiandrogen mechanism may cause hypospadias.

Hypospadias can entail a displacement of the urethral opening to points along the shaft, within the scrotum, or even in the perineum. Severe cases result in penile curvature or ambiguous genitalia, making immediate and accurate sex assignment of the newborn difficult. Hypospadias is generally correctable by surgery, but complications from such procedures and psychosocial problems can result.

The condition has increased in prevalence over the past 14 years in the United States, nearly doubling between 1968 and 1993, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The authors suggest this increase may be due to environmental chemicals encountered by pregnant women. However, very few of the 15,000 chemicals in the highest-volume production in the United States have been tested for endocrine-disrupting effects during development at any dose. Principal investigator Theo Colborn, who is director of the World Wildlife Fund's Wildlife and Contaminants Program, cautions women who anticipate becoming pregnant or who learn they are pregnant to be exceptionally careful about their diet and environment, at least until they pass childbearing age. More and more, the evidence reveals that the embryonic and fetal stages of development are the most sensitive to endocrine disruption, she says. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Bad News for Boys: Linking Hypospadias and Endocrine Disruptors. (Science Selections)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.