Eastern Enlargement of the Eu as a Subject of Policy Research: Introduction to the Symposium

By Fiala, Petr | German Policy Studies, October 2001 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Eastern Enlargement of the Eu as a Subject of Policy Research: Introduction to the Symposium


Fiala, Petr, German Policy Studies


Many European countries nowadays see the enlargement of the European Union in an eastern direction as one of the most important items on their political agendas and as a great challenge. It is an extensive political task that must be met by the political institutions of the European Union, the political representatives of its present membership, and primarily by the countries striving to become new members of the European Union. A whole series of political changes - including the tensions and problems that result from them - have appeared during the accession process itself. It is obvious that the candidate countries of Central and Eastern Europe must pursue a policy of adaptation and preparation for accession to the EU (in the cases of Cyprus and Malta, it is pursued to a lesser extent); nevertheless, the European Union itself, which has never awaited such a sizable enlargement before, must pursue this policy as well. Therefore, the EU has to modify not only the tools usually used for the accession of new members, but also the character of its institutions. Even when the search for a compromise that will result in necessary institutional reforms in the EU is in many cases difficult (as the summit in Nice made clear), the character and range of changes the EU will have to make can hardly be compared to the much more extensive and thorough reforms which must be undertaken in the countries seeking to join the European Union.

Should we interpret the policy of adaptation as a body of formal measures, as a series of rules, legal regulations, and laws that the candidate countries gradually pass in accordance with the requests of the European Union, we would commit a gross misunderstanding. While the implementation of European law in the accession countries is undoubtedly one of the most visible signs of the adaptation process, it is necessary to emphasize that the policy of adaptation is a much more comprehensive process, which asks for the connection of general requests and conditions stipulated by the European Union with various particular economic and social interests and conflicts influencing political decision-making in the respective candidate countries. As the results of these interactions are, in special cases, hard to predict, this situation - among others - contributes to hesitant or even negative reactions toward the process of more countries joining the EU, not only on the part of the European Union's present members, but also in some candidate countries. Furthermore, these reactions emerge to such a degree that in the mid-1990s they would have been considered a surprise. Once the accession to the EU ceased to be a distant political target of the post-communist countries, and grew to be regarded as a common political task necessitating hundreds of particular reform measures, the idea of joining the EU lost its self-evident symbolic significance as a final hurdle in overcoming the communist past and as a "return to Europe", even when this symbolic significance had bred major unconditional support for the efforts of the political representatives to bring the candidate countries into the EU. The decrease of the symbolic function of the accession to the EU and the transformation of the process into dozens of minor political decisions and practically realized measures have meant a wider differentiation in the civic views within particular nation states; political representatives of the candidate countries have thus found themselves not only bound to make decisions motivated by the requests of the institutions in Brussels, but also forced to convince the citizens of their own countries that the particular reforms are reasonable, defensible, and useful.

Political science research must also take into account the real political shift of the problems of the Eastern enlargement of the EU from the level of a symbolic political proclamation toward the particular political decisions, their application and implementation.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Eastern Enlargement of the Eu as a Subject of Policy Research: Introduction to the Symposium
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.