Use of Any Combined Pill Type Confers an Elevated Risk of a First Heart Attack. (Digests)

By Lane, T. | International Family Planning Perspectives, June 2002 | Go to article overview

Use of Any Combined Pill Type Confers an Elevated Risk of a First Heart Attack. (Digests)


Lane, T., International Family Planning Perspectives


The use of any oral contraceptive significantly raises the likelihood of a first myocardial infarction, according to a nationwide study from the Netherlands. (1) The results of the study also suggest, although inconclusively, that women who use third-generation pills (those containing the progestogen gestodene or desogestrel) are less likely to have a heart attack than those using pills containing the second-generation drug levonorgestrel, and that the use of third-generation pills is not associated with the risk of heart attack.

The investigation aimed to address a flaw that existed in most similar published studies, by recruiting sufficient numbers of women using second-or third-generation pills so that effects on the risk of myocardial infarction could be compared. The researchers note that these two types of contraceptive are commonly used in the Netherlands, so the population of potential study subjects was large. The analysis also included the use of first-generation pills (those containing the progestogens lynestrenol or norethindrone).

The investigators conducted the population-based case-control study by sending a standardized questionnaire to women aged 18-49 who had been hospitalized for a first myocardial infarction between January 1990 and October 1995, and to a randomly selected group of controls who had not had a myocardial infarction. Controls were matched to women who had had a heart attack by five-year age-group and area of residence, and they were asked to respond to the questionnaire with reference to a specific year between 1990 and 1995.

In all, 248 women who had had a myocardial infarction and 925 controls completed the survey. Women in the study group were, on average, older than the controls (43 vs. 38). They were also more likely to be current smokers (84% vs. 43%); have a history of hypertension (24% vs. 6%), high cholesterol (11% vs. 3%) and diabetes (6% vs. 1%); and have a family history of cardiovascular disease (65% vs. 36%).

Women were more likely to be current users of second-generation pills than of any other type: 24% of the study group and 19% of controls, compared with 8% of the study group and 12% of controls who used third-generation pills, and 4% of the study group and 3% of controls who used first-generation pills. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, area of residence, calendar year and risk factors for cardiovascular disease), logistic regression analyses showed that current users of any pill type and current users of first- and second-generation pills were significantly more likely than nonusers to have a heart attack (odds ratios, 2. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Use of Any Combined Pill Type Confers an Elevated Risk of a First Heart Attack. (Digests)
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.