Please update your browser

You're using a version of Internet Explorer that isn't supported by Questia.
To get a better experience, go to one of these sites and get the latest
version of your preferred browser:

The Relationship of Gender and Achievement to Future Outlook among African American Adolescents

By Honora, Detris T. | Adolescence, Summer 2002 | Go to article overview

The Relationship of Gender and Achievement to Future Outlook among African American Adolescents


Honora, Detris T., Adolescence


Current trends in the academic performance of African American adolescents are an area of concern among educators. Recent studies suggest that African American adolescents are at heightened risk for remedial instruction, school suspension, course failure, and school drop-out (Ford & Harris, 1996; Lisella & Serwatka, 1996; Qakes, 1985; Shaw & Braden, 1990). Factors identified as contributing to limited academic performance among these youths include academic tracking, limited teacher support, cultural mistrust, and disidentification with the academic culture of school (Finn, 1989; Oakes, 1985; Steele, 1992; Terrell, Terrell, & Miller, 1993). Lacking in the assessment of school achievement among African American adolescents is an understanding of how these youths cognitively envision themselves in the future and how appraisals of their personal future may shape academic performance. This study qualitatively examined the connection between future outlook and school achievement among low-income, urban African Ame rican adolescents, exploring how conceptions of the future are integrated into and manifested through students' academic performance. The study evolved from the notion that cognitive manifestations of the future, either positive or negative, influence current behavior and may serve as a motivating factor for school achievement (Nurmi, 1991; Nuttin, 1974, 1985).

Future Outlook

Future outlook refers to individuals' attitudes and expectations about the construction of future events (Nuttin, 1974, 1985). For the purposes of this paper, future outlook encompasses the concepts of future orientation and future time perspective, terms often used interchangeably in the literature. Inherent in the definition of future outlook is the belief that individuals' hopes for and expectations of the future influence present behavior. According to Nurmi (1991), a precursor to the development of a future outlook is the ability to connect current educational outcomes to future goals and ambitions. Researchers, found that, among adolescents, an extended (Nurmi, Poole, & Kalakoski, 1994; Nuttin, 1985) and optimistic (Poole & Cooney, 1987; Seginer, 1988) future outlook facilitates school achievement through enhancing long-term goal setting and persistence (Nurmi, Poole, & Kalakoski, 1994; Nuttin, 1985). Students who are optimistic about the future tend to be more academically motivated than students who a re uncertain about their possibilities. In a study examining the connection between present and possible (future) selves and grade point average among early adolescents, Anderman, Anderman, and Griesinger (1999) found that grade point average was positively related to perceptions of a positive possible self. Students who were more optimistic regarding possible self tended to outperform students who espoused negative perceptions of possible self.

In addition, future outlook has been studied across gender (Greene, 1990; Greene & Wheatley, 1992; Sundberg, Poole, & Tyler, 1983), socioeconomic level (Greene, 1990; Nurmi, 1987, 1989; Poole & Cooney, 1987; Trommsdorff, 1986), and ethnicity (Seginer & Halabi, 1991; Seginer, Trommsdorff, & Essau, 1993; Zimbardo, 1994). Prior research suggests that females tend to exhibit a more limited future outlook than males. Studies also have found that females tend to set fewer goals, are more pessimistic regarding their personal future (Greene & Wheatley, 1992; Nurmi, 1989; Trommsdorff, 1986), and tend to focus on more immediate goals (Bentley, 1983; Poole & Cooney, 1987) compared with their male counterparts. The goals and expectations of females, as compared with those of males, are informed more by family and other interpersonal relationships. In contrast to males, females often report a "double load" or a "rapid pileup" of family and career transitions (Greene & Wheatley, 1992; Lamm, Schmidt, & Trommsdorff, 1976).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Relationship of Gender and Achievement to Future Outlook among African American Adolescents
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.