The Rocca Di Manerba: A Late Neolithic Fortified and Terraced Site in Northern Italy

By Barfield, Lawrence; Buteux, Simon | Antiquity, September 2002 | Go to article overview

The Rocca Di Manerba: A Late Neolithic Fortified and Terraced Site in Northern Italy


Barfield, Lawrence, Buteux, Simon, Antiquity


The Rocca di Manerba is on a high promontory dominating the western shore of Lake Garda. Its strategic position is such that it has been almost continuously occupied from the late Neolithic to the 16th century. Excavations by the Universities of Birmingham and Padua between 1995 and 2001 were divided between Prof. G.-P. Brogiolo, who excavated the central Roman to Medieval area, and L.H. Barfield and S. Buteux, who were responsible for investigating mainly prehistoric deposits both inside and outside the main Medieval curtain wall on the north side of the summit of the Rocca.

Late Neolithic, Copper Age and Bell Beaker deposits were particularly well preserved due to the construction of a sequence of terraces and revetment walls, which provided both level occupation space and defence for successive settlements. The Medieval curtain wall at this point followed the line of one of the earlier terraces, contributing to its partial protection. The natural hill slope at this point consisted both of bed-rock and terra rossa and fell away at an angle of approximately 30[degrees].

The first occupation on the site may go back to the middle Neolithic Square Mouthed Pottery culture (VBQ), although pottery of this date was only found in late Neolithic layers.

The first terracing of the slope dates to the late Neolithic Lagozza culture and comprises a series of, perhaps, three terraces (FIGURE 3). The lowest was constructed of local rocks and was preserved to a height of some 2 metres, although only the lowest course of its outer revetment was preserved (FIGURE 1). It incorporated at least two large quern stones in its construction. The precise nature of this terrace/wall was difficult to interpret since it was c. 2.80 m wide and had an internal face against which Neolithic layers had accumulated. A carbonized wooden beam may be from the collapse of a wooden wall/fence along the inner face. The stone construction may not have been much higher since it was sealed by other late Neolithic layers.

[FIGURES 1, 3 OMITTED]

At least two antler picks were found in a gully along the back of the wall (FIGURE 2). It is unclear whether this deposition was ritual or functional.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

A second terrace, of a similar height, formerly existed higher up the slope, although much of this had been removed by the Medieval wall.

Evidence of a third, less substantial, terrace wall was found higher up the slope. The footings of this were present in the eastern part of the excavation but it disappeared in the collapse of the second terrace.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

The Rocca Di Manerba: A Late Neolithic Fortified and Terraced Site in Northern Italy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.