The Struggle for Freedom and Enlightenment in Tibet: Ethics and Spirituality

International Journal of Humanities and Peace, Annual 2002 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

The Struggle for Freedom and Enlightenment in Tibet: Ethics and Spirituality


600-500 BCE: Siddhartha Gautoma founds Buddhism

741-797: King Trisong Detsen builds first Tibetan monastery at Samye

1278: Kublai Khan, emperor of China, converts to Tibetan Buddhism

1578: Sonam Gyatsho, born in 1543, receives title of Dalai Lama ("Ocean of Wisdom") from Mongol ruler Altan Khan. He is identified as the 3rd Dalai Lama.

1617: Ngawang Lozang Gyatsho, the 5th Dalai Lama, is born in southern Tibet. He later re-establishes Tibet's independence, reopens trade with India and visits China.

1903-1904: Thubten Gyatsho, the 13th Dalai Lama, flees Tibet as British troops march to Gyaum, sheltering in Mongolia and China.

1909: The 13th Dalai Lama returns from exile. Chinese troops occupy parts of Kham, prompting Dalai Lama to appeal to Great Britain for help.

1910: The 13th Dalai flees to India as Chinese army invades Tibet.

1911: Yuan Shikai takes over Republic of China and declares Tibet, East Turkestan and Mongolia provinces of China.

1912: The 13th Dalai Lama returns to Tibet, as Tibetans rise up against the Chinese. On August 12, China signs agreement with Tibetans and leaves the country.

1913: The 13th Dalai Lama proclaims Tibetan independence. Britain, China and Tibet devise plan to divide Tibet into two parts, with far eastern provinces controlled by Chine (Inner Tibet) and an autonomous Outer Tibet. Chine refuses to sign agreement negating pro-Chinese provisions.

1935: Lhamo Thondup, the 14th Dalai Lama, is born. He is enthroned at Lhasa five years later.

1949: The People's Liberation Army of China, led by Mao Tse-tung, announces plans to liberate Tibet from foreign imperialists.

1950: The 14th Dalai Lama, then 15, takes over running of the Tibetan government. China invades Tibet, claiming it has always been Chinese territory.

1951: Tibet signs 12-Point Agreement which makes Tibet a "national autonomous region" of China, with cultural and political independence.

1954: Treaty titled "The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence" is signed by India and China. Chinese begin destroying monasteries in Eastern Tibet, giving rise to the Tibetan resistance movement and the Voluntary National Defense Army.

1956: The Dalai Lama seeks refuge in India.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

The Struggle for Freedom and Enlightenment in Tibet: Ethics and Spirituality
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?