Darwinism and Institutional Economics

By Hodgson, Geoffrey M. | Journal of Economic Issues, March 2003 | Go to article overview

Darwinism and Institutional Economics


Hodgson, Geoffrey M., Journal of Economic Issues


Thorstein Veblen proposed that economics should be reconstructed as a "post-Darwinian" science. One of the aims of this essay is to explore the meaning of this statement. A second aim is to show that American institutional economics had largely abandoned this commitment to Darwinian principles by the time of Veblen's death. In this context, the appearance of the book by David Hamilton (1953)--especially with its original title of Newtonian Classicism and Darwinian Institutionalism--is all the more remarkable. It reestablished the Veblenian links between Darwinism and institutionalism that most institutionalists had abandoned.

The first part of this essay summarizes the philosophical and analytical meaning of Darwinism and counters some prominent misunderstandings in this area. The second part shows how Veblen had incorporated these Darwinian ideas into his thinking. The third part shows how institutionalists after Veblen abandoned these Darwinian ideas. Having established this context, the fourth part emphasizes the importance of Hamilton's contribution.

What Is Darwinism?

A host of misunderstandings surround the question of Darwinism and its relation with the social sciences. Contrary to widespread suppositions, Darwinism does not support any form of racism, sexism, nationalism, or imperialism or provide any moral justification for "the survival of the fittest." Furthermore, Darwinism does not imply that militant conflict is inevitable, that human inequalities or power or wealth are inevitable, that cooperation or altruism are unimportant or unnatural, that evolution always leads to optimization or progress, that social phenomena can or should be explained in terms of biology alone, that organisms can or should be explained in terms of their genes alone, that human intention is unimportant, or that human agency is blind or mechanistic.

Humans differ from plants and most animals in that they have language and culture. We prefigure many actions and consequences in our minds and act intentionally. The mechanisms of socio-economic evolution and biotic evolution are very different. In studying socio-economic evolution we are concerned with human welfare and wellbeing, and not merely with survival or fecundity. All that is vitally important. But it does not diminish the importance or analytical value of Darwinism one iota.

Above all, Darwinism means causal explanation, where a cause is understood as necessarily involving transfers of matter or energy. Divine, spiritual, miraculous, or uncaused causes are ruled out. Explanations of outcomes are in terms of connected causal sequences. In addition, Darwinism upholds that the evolution of organisms and complex systems involves the mechanisms of variation, inheritance, and selection.

Darwinism upholds that every event or phenomenon has a cause. As the institutional economist Albert Wolfe (1924, 465) it, All science must ... rest on the faith that nothing happens without a cause and that every cause has an effect." This applies to human intentionality as well as everything else. Contrary to widespread belief, causal explanation does not mean that intentions are ignored in Darwinism; it simply means that they are caused, and they have to be explained. Also contrary to widespread belief, the commitment to the idea that every event or phenomenon has a cause does not imply that every event is predictable or that event regularities are pervasive or that the universe is a Parmenidean block or a machine. The principle of causal determination is not the same as determinism, as it is often defined (Bunge 1959; Hodgson 2002b).

Of course, Charles Darwin died before the idea of a gene was formulated and before the incorporation of Mendelian genetics into biology. Without relevant knowledge of the mechanisms of reproduction, Darwin did not rule out the possibility of the Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characters.

The importance and enduring value of Darwinism is its elaboration of a causal mechanism of evolution involving variation, inheritance, and selection. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Darwinism and Institutional Economics
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.