Effects of Constant Time Delay Method on Teaching Halliwick's Swimming Education Rotation Skills for Children with Autism. (Special Populations)

By Birkan, Bunyamin; Yilmaz, Ilker et al. | Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, March 2003 | Go to article overview

Effects of Constant Time Delay Method on Teaching Halliwick's Swimming Education Rotation Skills for Children with Autism. (Special Populations)


Birkan, Bunyamin, Yilmaz, Ilker, Ozen, Arzu, Konukman, Ferman, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport


Autism is a developmental disability that affects children's verbal and nonverbal behaviors with a ritualistic and compulsive way and it is significant before age three (APA, 1994; Berkeley et. al., 2001; Loovis, 2000). Also it is stated that children with autism have poor motor skills compared to their nondisabled peers (Winnick, 2000). Aquatic exercises provide a unique environment for special populations (Lepore, 2000). In addition, research shows that children with autism have positive experience and behaviors in aquatic exercises (Joyce-Petrovic et. al., 1994). In literature, it is stated that a constant time delay method was an effective way of teaching single and chain behaviors for special populations (Cast et. al., 1991; Mattingly and Bott, 1990; Tekin et. al., 2001). Halliwick's swimming education is a recreational and rehabilitative program that teaches vertical and lateral rotation skills in swimming . This program emphasizes freedom and enjoyment from the water (Moran, 1996). Although there have been studies about the effects of constant time delay procedures in the literature, there had been no research especially for the effects of constant time delay procedures on Halliwick's swimming education for children with autism. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine the effects of constant time delay procedures on Halliwick's swimming education rotation skills of children with autism.

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Effects of Constant Time Delay Method on Teaching Halliwick's Swimming Education Rotation Skills for Children with Autism. (Special Populations)
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