US Indians Fight for Sovereignty They Often Clash with State, Local Governments on Taxation, Other Economic Issues
Robert Bryce,, The Christian Science Monitor
DURING an April meeting with more than 500 American Indian leaders at the White House, President Bill Clinton vowed to "honor and respect tribal sovereignty." His statement brought prolonged applause from the tribal leaders.
The president, however, cannot prevent individual states and local governments from challenging sovereignty, and tribes continue to skirmish with state and local jurisdictions on matters ranging from taxation and environmental issues to fishing rights and gambling.
Like semi-independent island nations, 545 federally recognized tribes compete for jobs, money, and business opportunities. Each tribe has its own goals and objectives, which often clash with the jurisdictions around them.
Last year, the Oklahoma Tax Commission lost a decision in the US Supreme Court over levying taxes on members of the Sac and Fox tribe who live on tribal lands. The state wanted to collect income taxes and vehicle taxes from tribal members, but the high court disagreed.
"There has always been tension between state and tribal authorities on sovereignty issues," says John Echohawk, director of the Native American Rights Fund, a Colorado-based group that provides legal services to tribes. He says that as tribes push for gambling and environmental rights, sovereignty becomes more contentious. Despite the current battles, Mr. Echohawk sees hope for the future. "We are seeing more negotiated settlements of jurisdictional issues and more building of tribal-state relations." He says states and tribes are beginning to realize that they must co-exist.
Since 1979, when the Seminole tribe in Florida opened a bingo hall, gambling has become big business in Indian country. Last year, tribal-owned casinos took in some $6 billion, and state governments are eager to get a piece of the action. The state of Texas won a decision in the US Court of Appeals last month that prevents the Tigua tribe from expanding their casino operation near El Paso. Gov. Ann Richards has called such casino-gambling operations a "cheesy way" to make money. The Tiguas say they will appeal the ruling.
The state of New Mexico has also refused to allow Indian casinos to expand. Tribes there have filed suit against the state under the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. State officials say they plan to fight the issue all the way to the Supreme Court. A similar case involving Alabama and Florida is already before the court.
Some states have found it easier to cooperate rather than fight. In Connecticut, where slot machines at the Foxwoods Casino on the Mashantucket Pequot reservation are taking in over $1 million a day, the state is profiting handsomely. …