Refugees Numbers Rising, but World Hospitality Falls US Foreign Assistance, Immigration Quotas Are Expected to Shrink
George Moffett, writer of The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor
SO far, it has not been a good year for the world's huge population of displaced people.
Even though there are vastly more of them, governments around the world are erecting higher barriers to their entry, according to two reports issued during the past week.
And if the recommendations offered recently by a congressional panel are adopted, the United States will be the latest wealthy nation to trim its immigration quotas.
Meanwhile, US foreign aid, which is aimed at helping create jobs, lower population growth, and teach farming skills in poor nations - all part of the effort to reduce the incentive to migrate, development experts say - is on the verge of taking its biggest hit in Congress in decades.
"For those who are concerned about refugees and human rights, it's hard to imagine a more depressing time," says Roger Winter of the US Committee for Refugees (USCR) based here.
In all, about 125 million people live outside their native countries, according a report released yesterday by the Worldwatch Institute in Washington.
By Worldwatch's count, 23 million of them - four million more than last year - are actual refugees, defined by the UN as people unwilling or unable to return home because of a well-founded fear of persecution because of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group.
The total also includes 100 million legal migrants and 10 million illegal migrants who have left home in search of jobs. Tens of millions more - including 100 million in China alone - are on the move inside their own borders, "floating" in search of jobs.
Typically, it is war or joblessness that prompts such vast population movements. But, as Worldwatch notes, problems like land and water scarcity, desertification, and rapid population growth underlie both.
"The immediate cause of departure may be war or poverty, but war and poverty themselves invariably grow out of years of mounting pressures that finally force people from their homes," says the 49-page report, "The Hour of Departure: Forces that Create Refugees and Migrants."
But as the number of refugees swells, hospitality for them is cooling, according to the 1995 World Refugee Report, by the USCR. Nations that have before welcomed refugees are closing their doors or sending refugees home before it is safe.
Higher barriers are going up in, among other places, Tanzania, which has closed its border to Burundian or Rwandan refugees. …