Can Musical Mali Play On?
Skelton, Rose, The Independent (London, England)
Islamism is on the march and threatening to wipe out the country's cultural heritage. Rose Skelton reports from Bamako
The sky threatened to tip tropical rain on to the dancers' heads. But they moved in a circle around the open-air courtyard regardless, shaking their bodies as if in trance, vibrating to the intense drum and guitar rhythms flowing from the tiny stage.
A young Malian man sat to one side of the dark dance floor, occasionally clapping in time to the beat. "I don't dance," he said, while surveying the ecstatic crowd at the concert in Mali's capital, Bamako. "During Ramadan there are lots of things which are forbidden. But it doesn't bother me to come here."
For some it may seem an unlikely way to start the austere Muslim month of Ramadan. But in Mali, where music has been an integral part of life for generations, the tolerant form of Islam practised by the majority of its population offers no objection to such a celebration.
However, in Mali's northern desert, this is no longer the case. Following a military coup in March, northern Mali has been overrun by al-Qa'ida-linked Ansar Dine militants and other hard-line Islamic groups which hijacked a decades-long rebellion by ethnic Touareg rebels. In the north, extremists violently impose a strict form of Islam, which has prompted hundreds of thousands to flee, has seen sacred shrines in Timbuktu attacked for being "un-Islamic", and now threatens the country's rich musical history.
Malian artists have exported their music with more success than perhaps any other country in sub-Saharan Africa. Artists such as the singers Salif Keita and Oumou Sangare; Toumani Diabate, the master of the 21-stringed harp-like kora; the Touareg-Berber band Tinariwen and the late guitarist Ali Farka Toure are just some of the older generation who laid the foundations for younger musicians, such as Rokia Traore and Ali's son, Vieux, to take Malian music to an even wider audience.
Damon Albarn, frontman of the British band Blur, was back in Mali recently recording a follow-up to his 2002 album Mali Music, which brought Western collaborations with African musicians into the spotlight.
Malian music has not only been exported across the world, it has helped bring the world to Mali. Music festivals, such as the renowned Festival of the Desert, where U2's Bono performed this year, had helped the country achieve a status that neighbouring African countries could only dream of - that of a tourist destination. Now, its fortunes have changed.
When soldiers unseated the president in a coup lasting a matter of hours, the military shattered the image of Mali as one of Africa's most successful democracies. The Festival of the Desert is being moved elsewhere, say its organisers, and Mali is suddenly off the tourist map - a huge blow for the country's fragile economy. …