Investigating the Roles of Gambling Interest and Impulsive Sensation Seeking on Consumer Enjoyment of Promotional Games

By McDaniel, Stephen R. | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, January 1, 2002 | Go to article overview

Investigating the Roles of Gambling Interest and Impulsive Sensation Seeking on Consumer Enjoyment of Promotional Games


McDaniel, Stephen R., Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal


Promotional games are an increasingly utilized form of sales promotion; yet, few studies exist in this area. Some research suggests that promotional game participants may be similar to gamblers in terms of lifestyles and personality traits, such as sensation seeking. The current study extends existing research on this topic, by utilizing a telephone survey of randomly selected adults from two major cities in the U.S. (N=555), to examine this notion. Results support the similarity between promotional game participants and gamblers. Respondents' race, gambling interest levels, variety of gambling activities and sensation seeking are all found to be associated with liking to participate in promotional games.

According to the 20th Annual Survey of Promotional Practices, consumer promotions accounted for around 24% of manufacturers' marketing budgets, not including the additional money allocated to advertising budgets for leveraging such promotions ("Promotion Practices Condensed", Potentials, November 1998). In recent years, one of the most popular forms of consumer promotions has been what Ward and Hill (1991) have termed promotional games, where companies use contests or sweepstakes to help them reach their marketing objectives. Promotional games are often expensive, as it has become increasingly common for marketers to offer consumers a chance to win up to a million dollars, to help draw attention to their brands (Mogelefsky, 2000). Despite the growing use of promotional games, however, they have not received much attention in the consumer behavior literature; consequently, little is known about the psychology involved (Ward & Hill). Based on existing research, the current study employs a telephone survey of randomly selected adults (N = 555) to investigate the relationship between respondents' demographics, lifestyles and personalities and reported enjoyment of participating in promotional games. More specifically, it focuses on gambling interest and related activities, as well as the trait of sensation seeking, as it has been suggested that such factors might be part of the profile of promotional game participants (Browne, Kaldenberg & Brown, 1993; Ward & Hill).

PROMOTIONAL GAMES AND GAMBLING

Ward and Hill (1991, p. 70) have defined promotional games as opportunities for consumers to win a prize through luck or skill. They further delineated this marketing strategy into the categories of sweepstakes (games of chance) or contests (games of skill). Companies employ promotional games to help them build brand awareness, to influence customer behavior and to obtain market research (Schmidt, 2000). According to a recent study sponsored by Incentive magazine, promotional games were one of the most popular promotion strategies with 54% of marketers surveyed (Wood, 1998). The popularity of this form of sales promotion is further evidenced by the growing sales of scratch cards for use in marketing campaigns, as these figures rose from 50,000 cards sold in 1993 to over 5 million units sold in 1999 (Schmidt).

Although promotional games are currently very popular with marketers, this is hardly a novel promotional strategy. Ewen (1972) has noted that medieval Italian shopkeepers were among the first to use lottery-type games of chance to help attract customers (in Kopp & Taylor, 1994). Moreover, Kopp and Taylor have suggested that consumer-oriented prize promotions and forms of legalized gambling (such as lotteries) have coevolved in the marketplace over the past 300 years. Given the similarities between some promotional games and certain types of gambling, in terms of structure and outcome, they often served as substitutes for one another, as legal restrictions on one or the other fluctuated over time as a function of changing social attitudes and government regulation. The evolutionary course outlined above may have helped to blur the lines between promotional games and gambling, as their regulation (and subsequent scarcity) may have actually led to both activities becoming more popular with consumers (Kopp & Taylor).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Investigating the Roles of Gambling Interest and Impulsive Sensation Seeking on Consumer Enjoyment of Promotional Games
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.