While America Sleeps: Self-Delusion, Military Weakness, and the Threat to Peace Today / Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign Policy and Defense Policy

By Bandow, Doug | Ideas on Liberty, March 2002 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

While America Sleeps: Self-Delusion, Military Weakness, and the Threat to Peace Today / Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign Policy and Defense Policy


Bandow, Doug, Ideas on Liberty


While America Sleeps: Self-Delusion, Military Weakness, and the Threat to Peace Today

by Donald Kagan and

Frederick W. Kagan

St. Martin's Press * 2000 * 483 pages * $32.50

Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign Policy and Defense Policy

edited by Robert Kagan and William Kristol

Encounter Books * 2000 * 401 pages * $22.95

Americans who read While America Sleeps and Present Dangers might not recognize the world presented. The United States is at risk and embattled, sleeping while potential enemies march. Conflict, war, and disaster threaten at every turn. It is like Britain before World War II and America on the eve of Pearl Harbor. Only a massive military buildup can keep the nation safe.

It is a curious vision for a time when U.S. domination is akin to that of the Roman Empire. When it comes to conventional threats, there aren't any. The real danger, illustrated so horribly last September, is terrorism, but terrorism is largely a consequence of the sort of promiscuous American intervention favored by the authors.

Still, Donald and Frederick Kagan, Yale historian and West Point instructor, respectively, compare America today with Great Britain during the 1920s. In their view, just as the latter failed to win the peace after World War I, America risks failing to win the peace after the Cold War.

The bulk of While America Sleeps reviews British interwar policy. The analysis is interesting, but fails to demonstrate that upholding peace and stability everywhere would have advanced British interests or was sustainable.

For instance, the Kagans complain that British and/or allied weakness led to various colonial rebellions and European bullying. But Britain's failure to concentrate on its vital interests in Europe resulted in part from its dispersal of resources to police its farflung possessions.

Most important, Britain and France disagreed on how to treat defeated Germany, falling between the two stools of conciliatory revision and ruthless enforcement of Versailles. Either course might have worked. The muddled approach was almost designed to fail.

The international environments then and now also differ dramatically. The Europe of the 1920s hosted only two significant democratic powers, Britain and France; authoritarian neutrals and potential adversaries were far more numerous. Military weakness and political mistakes then led to disaster.

Compare the world confronting America today. The Russian Humpty Dumpty has fallen off the wall and lacks Germany's recuperative power. China could become a serious threat, but is far behind. The greatest danger is not being asleep, but being arrogant: Washington's hubris has done more to push China, India, Indonesia, and Russia together than have any common interests.

Moreover, America is spending more on the military than any other nation. In response, the Kagans wheel out one of the silliest arguments extant. The United States is spending a lower percentage of GNP on the military "than at any time since before World War II.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

While America Sleeps: Self-Delusion, Military Weakness, and the Threat to Peace Today / Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign Policy and Defense Policy
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?