Master Teachers' Responses to Twenty Literacy and Science/mathematics Practices in Deaf Education

By Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Stephenson, Brenda et al. | American Annals of the Deaf, Fall 2006 | Go to article overview

Master Teachers' Responses to Twenty Literacy and Science/mathematics Practices in Deaf Education


Easterbrooks, Susan R., Stephenson, Brenda, Mertens, Donna, American Annals of the Deaf


UNDER A GRANT to improve outcomes for students who are deaf or hard of hearing awarded to the Association of College Educators-Deaf/Hard of Hearing, a team identified content that all teachers of students who are deaf and hard of hearing must understand and be able to teach. Also identified were 20 practices associated with content standards (10 each, literacy and science/mathematics). Thirty-seven master teachers identified by grant agents rated the practices on a Likert-type scale indicating the maximum benefit of each practice and maximum likelihood that they would use the practice, yielding a likelihood-impact analysis. The teachers showed strong agreement on the benefits and likelihood of use of the rated practices. Concerns about implementation of many of the practices related to time constraints and mixed-ability classrooms were themes of the reviews. Actions for teacher preparation programs were recommended.

Recent mandates at the federal level such as those in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act require the field of deaf education to pay increased attention to curriculum content standards and accountability. In fall 2003, the Association of College Educators of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ACE-DHH) received a federal grant (Join Together, P342A030098) to improve practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. This grant was divided into eight sections, one of which was section 2.2, Content Best Practices. A team was organized to investigate this topic. The objectives of the team were (a) to identify the content to be taught and methods for teaching that content and (b) to propose enhancements to teacher preparation based on data and field evidence. These two objectives were addressed across two broad categories: literacy and science/mathematics. Literacy, science, and math became the focus because they are routinely identified as areas of critical need throughout education (Office of Postsecondary Education, 2006). In the present article, we present the findings of Team 2.2. We present a discussion of content standards, define research-based practices, provide a summary of the literature, and offer data from master teachers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing regarding the benefits of certain practices versus their likelihood of use.

Definitions

To facilitate ease of reading, we begin by providing definitions of several concepts. By deaf or hard of hearing or deaf and hard of hearing we mean that segment of the student population served by teachers trained in any of the teacher preparation programs that identify themselves as programs in deaf education and that lead to state certification.

Definitions of Standards-Related Terms

By standards or standard curriculum we mean that set of curricular objectives that a particular state or specialized professional association identifies as being the common core that all students should be able to understand or perform (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2006). Entity standards are common standards, and therefore often represent typical or average expectations of all individuals. Used in this context, the term standard implies a common expectation rather than a loftier goal. By the term content best practices we refer to those practices that have been proven effective for teaching the various aspects of a curriculum that have been deemed critical for all students to learn.

Definitions of Research-Based Practices

Research-based practices have become an important topic of discussion in education, as the vast array of education interventions has limited evidentiary backing (National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, 2003). At the inception of the investigation for the present study, little guidance was available regarding parameters of research quality. Easterbrooks (2002) used the procedures established by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy in a review of the literature for the institute. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Master Teachers' Responses to Twenty Literacy and Science/mathematics Practices in Deaf Education
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.