What Types of Learning Are Enhanced by a Cued Recall Test?

By Carpenter, Shana K.; Pashler, Harold et al. | Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, October 2006 | Go to article overview

What Types of Learning Are Enhanced by a Cued Recall Test?


Carpenter, Shana K., Pashler, Harold, Vul, Edward, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review


In two experiments, we investigated what types of learning benefit from a cued recall test After initial exposure to a word pair (A+B), subjects experienced either an intervening cued recall test (A[arrow right]?) with feedback, or a restudy presentation (A[arrow right]B). The final test could be cued recall in the same (A[arrow right]?) or opposite (?[arrow right]B) direction, or free recall of just the cues (Recall As) or just the targets (Recall Bs). All final tests revealed a benefit for testing as opposed to restudying. Tests produced a direct benefit for information that was retrieved on the intervening test (B). This benefit also "spilled over" to facilitate recall of information that was present on the test but not retrieved (A). Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Memory tests are commonly used to measure the accuracy or speed of memory. They can also be used to modify memory-sometimes in a beneficial way. Duchastel (1981), for example, showed that students remembered textbook information better if they completed test questions on the material instead of engaging in an unrelated activity. Furthermore, a number of studies have shown that testing is even more beneficial than additional study presentations (Carpenter & DeLosh, 2006; Carrier & Pashler, 1992; Kuo & Hirshman, 1996, 1997; Wheeler, Ewers, & Buonanno, 2003). This benefit for tested as opposed to restudied information is often referred to as the testing effect (see Dempster, 1996, for a review).

We can shed light on why the testing effect occurs by asking what types of learning can benefit from testing. Are testing benefits confined to the very items that were retrieved on the test? Or do they also occur for items that were on the test but not retrieved? If the benefits are confined to the retrieved items, do they manifest only when the final and intervening tests are the same? We examined these questions using cued recall (A[arrow right]B). Previous research indicates that a cued recall test (A[arrow right]?) is more beneficial than restudy (A+B) when the final test is cued recall in the same direction (A[arrow right]?) (Carpenter & DeLosh, 2005; Carrier & Pashler, 1992; Cull, 2000; Izawa, 1969, 1992). Do these benefits also occur when the final test is cued recall in the opposite direction (?[arrow right]B), or free recall of just the targets (Recall Bs) or cues (Recall As)?

This question has clear practical implications. Many researchers have argued that the testing effect may have important and unexploited educational potential (e.g., Chan, McDermott, & Roediger, 2006; Dempster, 1989, 1996; Glover, 1989; McDaniel & Fisher, 1991; Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). Before accepting this assertion, however, we must know whether these benefits occur for all sorts of memory, or solely for one. For example, one's enthusiasm for using testing to enhance the learning of the German-English correspondence Hund[Lef-right arrow]Dog would be tempered if a test (Hund[arrow right]?) enhanced forward recall but not backward recall (?[arrow right]Dog). In the present study, we explored the breadth of the testing effect to determine when testing might be beneficial or harmful in comparison with restudy opportunities.

EXPERIMENT 1

In Session 1, subjects were presented with 40 weakly related cue-target pairs. After a study presentation, subjects were given an additional chance to learn each pair. This took the form of either restudying the pair (A+B) or talcing a cued recall test (A[arrow right]?) immediately followed by a presentation of the pair (A+B). These two types of learning opportunities are referred to here as study trials and test/study trials, respectively, and their duration was always equal. The following day (Session 2), subjects completed one of four different types of final tests: cued recall in the same (A[arrow right]?) or opposite (?[arrow right]B) direction relative to the test/study trial of Day 1, or free recall over just the cues (Recall As) or just the targets (Recall Bs). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

What Types of Learning Are Enhanced by a Cued Recall Test?
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.