Audience Taste Divergence over Time: An Analysis of U.S. Movies' Box Office in Hong Kong, 1989-2004

By Lee, Francis L. F. | Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Winter 2006 | Go to article overview

Audience Taste Divergence over Time: An Analysis of U.S. Movies' Box Office in Hong Kong, 1989-2004


Lee, Francis L. F., Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly


Foreign media products often go through processes of local reception when they travel to another culture. This article provides a quantitative and longitudinal analysis of local reception by focusing on the notion of cross-culture predictability, or the degree to which the performance of a set of media products in a foreign market can be predicted by their performance in the domestic market. Analysis of box office performance of U.S. movies in Hong Kong from 1989 to 2004 finds that the tastes of Hong Kong and U.S. audiences have diverged over the years, a trend particularly robust among certain types of movies.

Introduction

Since the 1980s, audience reception analysis has helped establish an understanding of how local audiences "modify, hybridize, indigenize or transform"1 the meanings of foreign media products through active and selective consumption and appropriation. It is widely accepted that, although many media contents and formats are globally shared, audience understandings and perceptions are not.

However, most audience reception studies are essentially "one-shot case studies" demonstrating the local reception of a specific media product (e.g., a television program) at a certain time. What is generally lacking is evidence regarding the development of local or hybridized meanings, uses, and tastes over time. Few would doubt that the meanings constructed and judgments conferred when people encounter foreign media would have a certain degree of local specificity. But after repeated exposure or use, will the localized meanings, uses, and tastes in different places continue to develop in diverging ways? Or, is localization a temporary phenomenon to be undermined by continual consumption of the same "global media"?

Answering such questions is important to our understanding of local reception and its implications for the theoretical tradition of media or cultural imperialism. This study thus attempts to provide a longitudinal analysis of local reception by focusing on one of its manifestations: cross-culture predictability, or the degree to which the performance of a set of media products in a foreign market can be predicted by their domestic market performance. Lower levels of cross-culture predictability indicate higher degrees of specificities in audience tastes. Hence changes in cross-culture predictability over time can indicate the divergence or convergence of audience tastes.

Empirically, this study examines cross-culture predictability in the performance of U.S. movies in Hong Kong. The next two sections discuss the notion of local reception and explicate the concept of cross-culture predictability. Research questions are offered and movie box office data are analyzed.

Issues in the Studies of Local Reception

Reception analysis emerged from British cultural studies in the late 1970s as an attempt to empirically understand how audience members decode, negotiate, and/or resist the ideological meanings supposedly encoded in media texts.2 The earliest studies by David Morley demonstrated that texts are polysemic (though structured), while audience members are creators of meanings rather than cultural dopes susceptible to ideological influences in a straightforward manner.

These ideas soon entered into the study of audience consumption of foreign media. At a time when cultural imperialism was still arguably the dominant paradigm in international communication research, Liebes and Katz framed their classic analysis on cross-cultural reception of Dallas explicitly as an argument against the idea that foreign audiences would credulously adopt the values supposedly embedded in American media products.3 Since then, many other studies have shown how local audiences would interpret and appropriate global media in their own ways.4 More broadly speaking, many kinds of commodities and practices also go through processes of localization.5 The dynamic processes of local reception often result in hybrid cultural products, practices, and identities.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Audience Taste Divergence over Time: An Analysis of U.S. Movies' Box Office in Hong Kong, 1989-2004
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.