Mental Health Services for People with Intellectual Disability in Israel - A Review of Options

By Stawski, Mike; Merrick, Joav | The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, October 1, 2006 | Go to article overview

Mental Health Services for People with Intellectual Disability in Israel - A Review of Options


Stawski, Mike, Merrick, Joav, The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences


Abstract: Intellectual disability (ID) (often also referred to as "mental retardation," "development disability," "mental handicap," "learning disability" or as "generalized learning difficulties") is common in all countries. Many people with ID suffer from psychiatric/behavioral/emotional disturbances (known as "dual diagnosis"). Specialist psychiatric services are needed to address these problems effectively, but are not currently available in most countries, including Israel. This article sets out to describe the problems, current services in Israel, approaches in other countries and proposed solutions for Israel. We believe it important to enforce laws against discrimination based on disability, to raise the general awareness, knowledge and skills among generic mental health professionals on the topic of intellectual disability by inclusion in university, postgraduate and in-service training curricula, to work towards a form of sub-specialty within psychiatry along the lines of the model in the United Kingdom and to establish specialized psychiatric services, possibly functioning as back-up to the generic psychiatric services.

Introduction

The European Association for Mental Health in Mental Retardation at its 4th European Congress in Rome, Italy, in September 2003, adopted a policy statement designed to help promote greater awareness of the mental health aspects and needs of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The statement (Declaration of Rome 2003) asserts that all persons with ID have a right to the best available mental health care that is part of the health and social care system of every nation. The Declaration targeted public policy makers, administrators, politicians, professionals, researchers, and relatives or friends of people with ID in order to promote increased access and more equitable provision of mental health services to people with ID (1).

Intellectual disability affects 0.5-1.5% of the population in developed countries (2-5). In Israel the Divison for Mental Retardation (DMR) of the Ministry of Social Affairs provides service to 25,000 people (about 0.4 % of the general population), who are legally recognized as persons with ID. Of these, about 8,000 live in residential care settings, while the rest live at home with their families but are provided with services from the Ministry (6).

The definitions of ID (or MR) in ICD-IO, DSMIV and of the American Association on Mental Retardation (7), as well as the legal definition used by the DMR, are very similar, and contain two essential elements, namely low performance on standardized IQ testing, and below than expected performance in tasks of everyday life. They all specify that the problems must have arisen during the developmental period (thus excluding, for instance, the results of traumatic brain injury in adulthood) and they specifically exclude cognitive impairment secondary to schizophrenia. A common feature to all definitions is delayed, not deviant, development, hence putting the treatment of deviance in the presence of ID into the purview of mental health professionals.

The Psychiatric "Angle"

People with ID are generally at increased risk for a range of health problems (8). With particular reference to psychiatric problems, there is general agreement that the rate of psychopathology in people with ID is substantially raised when compared with the general population, with increased vulnerability over the whole spectrum of psychopathology but with emphasis on certain groups of diagnoses, such as the autistic spectrum disorders. Reported rates of psychopathology vary significantly from study to study, from 10% to 60% (3, 9-12). By virtue of this high rate of psychopathology (as well as of physical pathology), people with ID should be considered a population at-risk. Dual diagnosis and other health problems are often an influential factor when a family is considering placement in residential care for a family member with ID (13). …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Mental Health Services for People with Intellectual Disability in Israel - A Review of Options
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.