Accessibility for Golfers with Disabilities: It's Tee Time!

By Mittelstaedt, Robin D. | Parks & Recreation, June 1997 | Go to article overview

Accessibility for Golfers with Disabilities: It's Tee Time!


Mittelstaedt, Robin D., Parks & Recreation


According to the National Golf Foundation, the number of golfers in the United States more than doubled between 1970 and 1991, to 24.7 million players. Most U.S. golfers (80 percent) play at least 50 percent of their rounds on public courses (Schroeder, 1991). The popularity of golf is clearly on the rise, with increasing interest by women and by youth and teens. This is due, in part, to increased media attention given to women golfers, and to the recent notoriety gained by younger players, such as Tiger Woods, who has taken the golf world by storm.

One of the Fastest Growing Sports Among the Physically Challenged

The development of golf as a sport is reaching new heights, but one of golf's greatest stories is what is happening with the disabled. Golf is one of the fastest growing sports among the physically challenged because it places as much emphasis on the mental as the physical aspects of the game. In addition, golf is one of the few sports where a player with a disability competes on the same playing field as unimpaired golfers. Other sports -such as basketball, football and bowling-have structured leagues for competition, but golf is unique in that everyone competes against the same foe...the golf course. That "level" playing field, say many golfers with disabilities, is what attracts them to the sport.

In the 1950s, the idea of someone playing golf in a wheelchair was almost unheard of. But now the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) ensures all people access to public facilities, which includes municipal golf courses. That has flung the door wide open for the estimated 49 million Americans in the United States with some form of physical disability (U.S. Census Bureau, 1990). Of this group, only two to three million participate in some form of organized physical or social activity.

By becoming physically active, people with disabilities can increase mobility, self-confidence, independence and productivity. Studies have shown that physically challenged people participating in a sports and recreation programs tend to lead healthier lives with fewer doctors visits and hospitalizations.

National Groups and Associations

Helping thousands of the disabled enjoy the unique pleasure of hitting a golf ball are several national groups (see Figure 1), the oldest of which is the National Amputee Golf Association (NAGA). Almost 50 years ago a small group of World War II amputees recognized the importance that participation in the sport of golf played in their own rehabilitation. Believing that participation in physical activity could also benefit others, they formed an organization to promote and offer physical and mental therapy to amputees through involvement with golf. NAGA now boasts over 3,500 members and sponsors over 30 regional and national golf tournaments each year.

Other national organizations supportive of golfers with disabilities include: the Association of Disabled American Golfers, founded in 1992; the National Handicapped Sports and Recreation Association; Physically Limited Golfers Association; the United States Blind Golfers Association; Special Olympics International; and the Access Board.

Models of Accessibility

Clemson's Walker Course, at Clemson University, is rapidly gaining a reputation as a model of accessibility for a championship-level, 18-hole golf course. Edward J. Hamilton, director of research for the National Center on Accessibility at Indiana University says, "It is absolutely incredible . . . I expect the Clemson course will become widely regarded as one of the most successful, accessible courses in the world." Clemson's National Project for Accessible Golf has a long-term commitment to seek new technologies and programs which will benefit golfers with disabilities.

In 1996, the fifth National Forum on Accessible Golf was attended by faculty members from departments of parks, recreation and tourism management, agricultural and biological engineering, horticulture, and fisheries and wildlife. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Accessibility for Golfers with Disabilities: It's Tee Time!
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.