Who Is Watching Tv? Who Is Listening to Radio? Consumer Perceptions of TV and Radio Advertising Information
Hsu, Jane Lu, Yang, Shuen-An, Su, Li-Chang, Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal
The objective of this study was to analyze consumer perceptions of television and radio advertising information. Four factors were extracted to explain advertising information, including product/selling information, image information, appealing information, and utilization information. For heavy TV watchers, positive attitudes are formed toward the information in television advertising. When consumers spend more time on radio or at least as much as on television, positive attitudes toward the information in radio advertising are generated. Respondents value information that is entertaining, attractive, has strong product images, and assisted memory recall in advertising as important.
Keywords: medium information, consumer perceptions, television, radio, advertising information, positive attitudes, assisted memory recall.
Consumers rely on information to evaluate alternatives prior to product purchases (Bettman, 1979; Blackwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2001; Howard, 1989; Mowen, 1995). In order to obtain information to support decisions, consumers devote extra efforts to external information searching when internal searching cannot provide sufficient information (Beatty & Smith, 1987). Among various information sources, information provided by the media is widely accessible and is a relatively cost-efficient means of finding information.
Consumers prefer searching for information for specific purposes instead of being approached by unsolicited mail, email, or telephone calls (McKenna, 1995). Abemethy, Gray, and Butler (1997) mentioned that because of concerns about information overload, advertisers needed to focus on important components in disseminating information in the market. Television is a commonly used medium for advertising campaigns due to its popularity and the capability to reach audiences of all ages (Edell & Keller, 1989). Similarly to television, radio has characteristics of external pacing and volatility (Verhoef, Hoekstra, & Van Aalst, 2000). The advantages of radio advertising are low production costs and selectivity in reaching segments of audiences homogeneous in demographics or lifestyles (McDonald, 1998; Roberts & Berger, 1989).
The objective of this study was to investigate consumer perceptions of television and radio advertising information in Taiwan. Since this type of study has not previously been conducted exclusively in this geographic area, the findings will provide new insights into the Taiwanese market and may assist marketing managers in delivering product- or service-related information using TV or radio advertising, more effectively to reach consumers in the targeted market segments.
Television and radio advertisements have certain likenesses in the way they use sound effects and themes to impress audiences. Leigh (1991) pointed out that the relative effectiveness of television versus radio as a broadcast medium is an important issue both practically and theoretically. Upon receiving information from television and radio advertising, consumers may form positive attitudes toward the advertised products or services (Aaker & Stayman, 1990; Derbaix, 1995; Edell & Burke, 1987). Buchholz and Smith (1991) found that consumers' processing of television and radio advertising was different and needed further research.
To measure the efforts of consumers' information searching, Heaney and Goldsmith (1999) used Likert scales to quantify respondents' information concerning searching behavior prior to service provider selection. Schmidt and Spreng (1996) believed that consumers' perceived abilities and motivations to search for information were factors that directly influenced their searching behavior. Mowen and Minor (2001) indicated that information searching helped consumers gather more information on product prices and qualities in order to reduce perceived risks and uncertainty.
Consumers select, process, and explain information to form meaningful representations (Armstrong & Kotler, 2003). …