TOWARD PROACTIVE PEACE: A Science of Terrorism Prevention

By Kazanjian, Michael M. | Infantry, January/February 2007 | Go to article overview

TOWARD PROACTIVE PEACE: A Science of Terrorism Prevention


Kazanjian, Michael M., Infantry


The September 11 terrorist attacks and the ensuing war on terrorism have been teaching us a lesson which the military has long acknowledged. That lesson is that peace must be proactive. During peace, society needs to do those cultural things which would prevent war.

Cultural or social efforts preventing war include two points. One is to have a strong defense structure. Such military strength has global and local limits, but even Osama bin Laden knows and Saddam Hussein and al-Zawaqiri knew what our military could do. This is the reason bin Laden is still in hiding. The second is to be culturally involved, helping encourage people here and abroad to do good, and nonviolently correcting their misdeeds, where possible.

I shall examine four views of peace and war. These include naïve peace and hot war, peace as cold war, transitional peace and transitional war, and proactive peace. Taking the holistic historical perspective, I see an evolution. The world seems to be evolving from the first theme and toward the fourth one. Our current war on terrorism, including the conflict in Iraq, appear to be the third situation of peace and war, changing toward the fourth view.

Naïve Peace and Hot War

Naïve peace and hot war appear to comprise human history. One nation deploys uniformed soldiers to attack another country. The attacked country may be able to militarily respond. This ongoing process or peace-war cycle has included nonmilitary activities.

Spies, recruitment of civilian sympathizers from the "enemy" side, cutting off supply lines to the "enemy" military, and using various forms of psychological warfare comprise nonviolent or nonmilitary endeavors. No war throughout history has been completely a sudden, violent, military affair.

Naïve peace means that nations have taken pre-war situations for granted. The attacked nations have generally ignored situations in the countries which have attacked them. Enemy leaders, rulers to call for war against another nation, do not suddenly drop from the sky. They grow up learning and deciding that one day they must hit another nation. Their intentions and actions would not have been possible had the attacked countries been proactive instead of naïve. Had spies and overt social relations been in place in foreign countries, an enemy might not have evolved.

A peace which ignores potential enemies leads to hot war. One nation attacks another. The defending country seeks to militarily respond. Such response involves soldiers from the attacked nation to kill the uniformed military of the attackers. Once the killing and destroying are over, the defending nation feels the enemy is eliminated, and it returns to another naïve peace. This means the peace-war cycle is simply awaiting the next war.

What we see in naïve peace and hot war is akin to ignoring daily maintenance, and then responding or reacting to a crisis. But society tells us to do the opposite in many instances. We hear of preventive medicine, crime prevention, fire prevention, preventive maintenance. One day, hopefully the 9/11 attacks and the war in Iraq can help us see the need for terrorism prevention.

Peace as Cold War

The peace-war cycle (naïve peace and hot war) has been with us through World Wars I and II, and Korea. With conventional weapons, societies have had little difficulty imagining attacking, responding, and hopefully defeating the enemy. Killing the enemy has been seen as possible and necessary as a means of preserving the defending nation's existence and future. Every invention including guns, dynamite, machine guns, aviation, radar, ships, and so on, changed the face of war.

Taking life and destroying property had historically been relatively easier. Technology helped the attacker become more powerful, and the defender more hopeful in surviving. Ironically, Just War Theory showed us that even conventional war would be unethical and required justification. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

TOWARD PROACTIVE PEACE: A Science of Terrorism Prevention
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.