Self-Concept and Masculinity/femininity among Normal Male Individuals and Males with Gender Identity Disorder

By Taher, Naeema S. | Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, April 20, 2007 | Go to article overview
Save to active project

Self-Concept and Masculinity/femininity among Normal Male Individuals and Males with Gender Identity Disorder

Taher, Naeema S., Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal

This study aimed at identifying self-concept and masculinity/femininity in 102 normal males and a similar number of individuals with Gender Identity Disorder using the Tennessee Self-Concept scale (Farag & Al-Qurashi, 1999) and the MMPI subscale of Masculinity/Femininity (Hana, Ismail, & Milaika, 1986). Results showed that (a) there are significant differences in self-concept in favor of normal individuals; (b) individuals with Gender Identity Disorder scored significantly higher on clinical measures including neurosis, psychosis, personal disorder, defensive positiveness, and lower on personality integration, (c) normals scored significantly higher on masculinity measures than did males with Gender Identity Disorder.

Keywords: Gender Identity Disorder, self-concept, masculinity, Tennessee self-concept scale, MMPA masculinity/femininity scale.

Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a passive phenomenon which is found globally including in the Arab countries, despite the fact that this phenomenon contradicts Arab social, religious, and moral values.

Research on factors that may cause GID has been flourishing in recent decades. In 1966, Kohlberg focused on moral development. In the same area, Green (1987), Zucker, Bradley, and Sanikhani (1997), and Zucker, Bradley, and Sullivan (1996), investigated gender identity formation and disorders among children and adolescents. Zucker and Bradley (1999) scrutinized GID in relation to variables such as different developmental stages. Orlofsky and Stake (1981) examined academic and career achievement and interpersonal concerns in males and females. Results indicated that psychological masculinity and femininity are better predictors of strivings and self-concepts in the achievement and interpersonal domains than is gender.

Marsh (1987) tested the generality of the Marsh/Shavelson conclusions in a study of the relations between multiple dimensions of self-concept and masculinity/femininity (MF) measures. The relationships between four Australian Sex-Role Scale (M+, M-, F+, F-) items and two facets of self-concept (SDQ II) were examined. Results showed that the social desirability of MF items, whether positive or negative, were more highly correlated with self-concept responses than whether the items were M or F. Signorella and Jamison (2001) studied the influence of gender stereotyping on sex differences in spatial performance. Results showed that adolescent girls whose masculine self-concept scores exceeded their feminine self-concept scores, performed better on spatial tasks than did girls whose F scores were higher than their M scores. No significant associations were found for boys.

GID is characterized by strong and persistent cross-gender identification and by persistent discomfort with one's sex. Results (Marsh, 1987) indicated that extreme caution must be taken when treating adolescents with GID. Sex reassignment must not be started before patients have reached eighteen years of age (Meyenburg, 1999).

The DSM-IV (DSM - American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder as a mental disorder has attracted controversy for its diagnostic criteria as a target for therapeutic intervention, and for its relationship to a homosexual sexual orientation. Another controversy is the claim that the diagnosis of GIDC was introduced into the DSM-III to replace homosexuality. In this article it is argued that GIDC was included as a psychiatric diagnosis because it met the generally accepted criteria used by the framers of the DSM-III for inclusion. Therefore, the entry of GIDC was guided by research clinicians using the same mechanism that led to the introduction of other new psychiatric diagnoses (Zucker & Spitzer, 2005).

According to social learning theory (Cohen, Derend, & Arrindell, 1994), a child acquires gender identity characteristics by observing the conduct of a certain model, and then adapts such a model of conduct to be replicated in his/her own behavior.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
Loading One moment ...
Project items
Cite this article

Cited article

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited article

Self-Concept and Masculinity/femininity among Normal Male Individuals and Males with Gender Identity Disorder


Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

While we understand printed pages are helpful to our users, this limitation is necessary to help protect our publishers' copyrighted material and prevent its unlawful distribution. We are sorry for any inconvenience.
Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.

Are you sure you want to delete this highlight?