How Manipulatives Affect the Mathematics Achievement of Students in Nigerian Schools

By Aburime, F. Ehi | Educational Research Quarterly, September 2007 | Go to article overview

How Manipulatives Affect the Mathematics Achievement of Students in Nigerian Schools


Aburime, F. Ehi, Educational Research Quarterly


Mathematics is a very important subject in Nigeria. Yet, for more than twenty years, mathematics education in Nigeria has been in a sorry state. Mathematics achievement has been very low and frustrating. So far, every effort made to save Nigerian education from the devastating effect of persistent poor mathematics achievement has failed. An experiment to address the problem of poor achievement in mathematics in Nigerian high schools was carried out in Edo State of Nigeria. Eighteen simple improvised geometric manipulatives were made from ordinary cardboard paper. The manipulatives were used in teaching students in experimental group. There was a control group of students which did not study with manipulatives. Scores were collected from mathematics test taken by students in both experimental and control groups. Statistical analysis showed that students in the experimental group (who were taught with manipulatives) were clearly better than students in the control group who were not instructed with manipulatives.

Introduction

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education made mathematics compulsory in all classes in grade schools and high schools. In fact, in grade school and high school, every child must study mathematics everyday the child goes to school in Nigeria The National Policy on Education also made it compulsory for students to pass mathematics at the end of junior high and the senior high school levels of education in order to continue their educational career. It is therefore necessary that mathematics be taught effectively in Nigerian schools. Another reason for desiring effective mathematics teaching in Nigerian schools is that mathematics is very much needed for undergraduate admission into universities in Nigeria (see table 1 below).

Table 1 shows that 69% (more than two-thirds) of the university courses available need mathematics as entry requirement. In the courses concerned, a candidate must pass mathematics at credit or distinction level, and also offer mathematics at the Universities Matriculation Examination (UME) before being considered for admission. Out of nine faculties, four faculties (Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Medical Sciences, and Faculty of Science) require credit or distinction level pass in mathematics for all courses before candidates can qualify for further screening for admission. In spite of this great need for high achievement in mathematics methemetics achievement has remained verv low for manv veais Lassa (1981) pointed out the sorry state of mathematics education in Nigeria. Lassa's warning did not stop the continuous hish failure in mathematic and its resulting frustration of students and embarrassment of teachers. Ale (1989) declared that the Mathematical Association of Nigeria was launching a War Against Poor Achievement in Mathematics (WAPAM); but WAPAM has not succeeded in solving the problem of poor achievement in mathematics in Nigerian high schools. Ale (2003), in his capacity as Director of the National Mathematical Center, Abuja, Nigeria, launched a Mathematics Improvement Program. Yet, the sad situation persists. To show how serious the situation is, Amoo (2001) brought out the following table (table2).

In 1995, only 16.5% of high school students passed mathematics at the credit or distinction needed as a precondition for admitting students into majority of university courses. In 1996, the percentage fell further to 10.0%, only to fall again to 7.7% in 1997. Outright failure (Fail 9) in high school final year mathematics examination rose from 43.3% in 1995 through 52.9% in 1996 to 66.2% in 1997. This shows that nearly two-thirds of final year students in Nigerian high schools failed mathematics in 1997! These results are obviously not encouraging. They frustrate not only the students affected, but also other students. Mathematics teachers in Nigerian high schools as well as parents, guardians, and government are not happy about this persistent poor performance in mathematics. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

How Manipulatives Affect the Mathematics Achievement of Students in Nigerian Schools
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.