Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

By Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo | Educational Research Quarterly, December 2007 | Go to article overview

Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers


Imhonde, Henry O., Aluede, Oyaziwo, Educational Research Quarterly


This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting data that were analyzed in this study. The questionnaire consisted of 7 sections: the demographic variables, Smoking stages, delinquency, alcohol use, school connectedness, family connectedness and peer smoking status. Two out of the three hypotheses tested were supported. Result of the multiple regression analysis indicated that delinquency and parents' smoking status independently predict smoking initiation, while depression was not found to initiate smoking among adolescents. Adolescents' whose parents smoke and had a strong family connectedness were found to smoke more during the addictive stage than those whose parents do not smoke. Female smokers were found to smoke more at initiation stage as a result of peer pressure and school connectedness. Males were found not to have greater smoking intensity as a result of peer pressure and school connectedness. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that the future of a successful treatment program by therapists for smokers lies heavily on knowing and identifying the stage of smoking the individual is, and how intense the individual's smoking level. This no doubt would help the therapists in tailoring specific treatment for specific individuals.

Introduction

World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Heart Foundation's current data reveal that in Nigeria, 22.1 % of school youth age between 12 to 17 years use tobacco (Megafu, 2002, as cited in Imhonde, 2005). In addition, general population survey on the use of tobacco products among Nigerian adults (20 years+) carried out in the Middle Belt Region of Northern Nigeria revealed the following: that the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking was 22.6 %; cigar pipe tobacco stood at 17.9 %; and snuff users was 9.6 %. Furthermore, Males were discovered to smoke more titan females (Obot, 1990, as cited in Imhonde, 2005). Furthermore, me National Drug Law Enforcement Agency [NDLEA] (1991), found that about 11 % of the students' population in Lagos, Nigeria abused cigarettes. In 1992, NDLEA shifted research to Kano state and found that the male to female ratio for cigarette use was 11:1. In the same year, the NDLEA carried out yet another comparative study of Kano and Lagos states on the extent and pattern of the use of psychoactive drugs among secondary school students. It was found that unlike in Lagos state, where Valium topped the list and cigarette use came a distant 3rd position, cigarette use topped the list in Kano state and was followed by Valium use (NDLEA, 1992).

Smoking rates among secondary schools adolescents in the United States of America has also risen over the past decade; with the prevalence rate of current cigarette smoking (i.e., at least 1 cigarette in the past 30 days) among high school students increasing from 27.5% in 1991 to as high as 36.4% in 1997 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1998), with a slight decrease in 1999 to 34.8% (CDC, 2000). Leventhal and Cleary (1980) originally described smoking as a complex behavior that evolves through several stages. Smoking in adolescence is commonly conceptualized as progressing through a sequence of developmental stages characterized by different stages of smoking frequency and intensity (Mayhew, Flay, & Mott, 2000), often culnnnating in nicotine dependence (Chassin, Presson, Pitts, & Sherman, 2000; Colby, Tiffany, Shiffinan, & Niaura, 2000).

Given the recurring incidents of smoking and other substance abuse among secondary schools' adolescents, Orubu (1983, cited in Adelekan & Ndom, 1997) warned thatyoung people were now ruining their lives through drug use as Nigeria ranks third among the developing countries in its use of dangerous drugs.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.