Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Impact of Traits and Perceptions on Technology Adoption by Women Entrepreneurs in Malaysia

By Ndubisi, Nelson Oly | Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, July 1, 2007 | Go to article overview

Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Impact of Traits and Perceptions on Technology Adoption by Women Entrepreneurs in Malaysia


Ndubisi, Nelson Oly, Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal


ABSTRACT

The current research adopts the technology acceptance model (TAM) in examining the relationship between IT adoption, perceived system's ease of use, and the entrepreneurial traits (such as, innovativeness, risk-taking propensity, perseverance, and flexibility) of Malaysia women entrepreneurs. The results show that perceived ease of use has an indirect influence (via perceived usefulness) on adoption. Contrary to TAM, no significant direct relationship was found between perceived ease of use and adoption. Innovativeness and risk-taking propensity were found to determine perceived ease of use and adoption. The findings show that women entrepreneurs are driven by instrumentality in technology adoption. Contrary to the process orientation reported in previous studies for women in general, women entrepreneurs are outcome oriented in technology adoption. Important implications on theory and practice are discussed.

INTRODUCTION

While advances in technology continue with rapidity, the use of these upcoming technologies has fallen below expectations (Ndubisi, Gupta & Massoud, 2003; Johansen & Swigart, 1996; Wiener, 1993; Moore, 1991) and has been identified as one of the plausible explanations for the productivity paradox (Sichel, 1997; Landauer, 1995). A number of studies have shown that successful investment in technology can reap immense benefits for the adopting individuals and organisations (Doms et al 2003; Gretton et al. 2002; Bennett et al. 2003). On the basis of these benefits, various governments have been motivating their business communities particularly entrepreneurs, to avail themselves of the benefits of these technological advances. Despite these significant technological advances and increasing governmental investments in promoting IT usage at individual and organizational levels, it is still unclear, the extent of IT usage among women entrepreneurs, the determinants of usage, and the role of personal traits. Clearly, understanding the determinant structure of these key variables is critical for researchers, entrepreneurs, as well as systems developers and vendors targeting entrepreneurs.

The focus of this research on women entrepreneurs reflects the growing number and importance of women owned businesses (Michaels 2006) around the globe. Michaels (2006) reported that the number of women-owned businesses in the US grew at twice the rate of all firms between 1997 and 2002, jumping 14 percent to 6.2 million. Cowling and Taylor (2001) reported that proportionately, three times as many male self-employed in 1991 had gone on to become job creating self-employed by 1995. The research is precipitated by the fact that entrepreneurs (especially women) are a distinct and important group, which unfortunately has not received well-deserved research attention in Malaysia. Moreover, entrepreneurs have been reported in personality and psychological research as exhibiting unique traits that distinguish them from other user groups, which traits could have different implications on their usefulness and ease of use perceptions and adoption of computer technologies.

In this study, perceived ease of use is investigated to understand its determinants (namely users' traits), and its impact on adoption of computer technologies by women entrepreneurs. Studies comparing the salience of perceived usefulness and ease of use between male and female users of technology have shown that perceived usefulness is more important for male users while female users emphasize ease of use in technology usage decisions. For example, Venkatesh et al., (2000) reported higher instrumentality (i.e. outcome) for men and higher process orientation (ease of use/difficulty) for women in technology adoption decisions. Hennig and Jardim (1977), Rotter and Portugal (1969) have earlier shown that women tend to focus on the methods used to accomplish a task - suggesting a greater process orientation. Given the process-orientation of women, it is the aim of this study to examine the preponderance of ease of use over usefulness with respect to computer technology adoption by women entrepreneurs.

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Evaluating the Direct and Indirect Impact of Traits and Perceptions on Technology Adoption by Women Entrepreneurs in Malaysia
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.