Psychoanalysis in a Changing World

By Eizirik, Cláudio Laks | International Journal of Psychoanalysis, February 2008 | Go to article overview

Psychoanalysis in a Changing World


Eizirik, Cláudio Laks, International Journal of Psychoanalysis


The author reflects, in this opening speech of the IPA Berlin Congress, on some changes in the world, in Germany and in psychoanalysis in the 85 years that have elapsed since the previous congress in Berlin, in 1922. He emphasizes important developments in psychoanalytic theory and practice, research and applications to understand several wider realms. He also stresses the importance of psychoanalysis for the current discussion on the transgenerational effects of traumatic events, and connects all these aspects with the theme of the Congress-remembering, repeating and working through.

Keywords: current challenges, current trends, psychoanalysis

Zog nit keyn mol az du geyst dem letzten veg,

Khotsh himlen blayene farshteln bloye teg;

Kumen vet noch undzer oysgebenkte sho,

S'vet a poyk ton undzer trot - 'mir zaynen do!'

Never say that you are going on your last way.

Though leaden clouds may be concealing skies of blue,

Because the hour we have hungered for is near,

And our marching steps will thunder, 'We are here!'

With these lines, in Yiddish, begins the song written by Hirsh Glick in the Vilna Forest for the Partisans. In time, the song spread through all the forests, not just in Eastern Europe but throughout the world, joining all who were fighting the Nazis and, after the war, were remembering the battles during that terrible time. An expression of resistance against oppression, it illustrates how the human mind is able to endure and to survive under the most extreme conditions of suffering and despair.

Many times hope seems to vanish, whether in the analysis of a severely ill patient or in social or institutional situations that appear to be leading to despair.

Under these circumstances, the lessons from the past and the resilience both of our patients and of the many millions of human beings who have been subjected to pain and physical and psychic suffering give us the strength and determination to never surrender.

After 85 years, we are here, back in Berlin, where the IPA held its 7th Congress in 1922, under the presidency of Ernest Jones, and after 22 years we are back in Germany, where the IPA held its last Congress in 1985, in Hamburg, presided over by Adam Limentani.

The first Berlin Congress was held from September 25th to 27th, 1922, at Kurfürstenstrasse 115-116, where we are to unveil a replica of the Gradiva this evening, thanks to the generous idea of the two IPA German societies. It was the last Congress to be attended by Sigmund Freud. 265 people registered, which was then considered a success, and is one tenth of the number here today. Several seminal papers were presented, by Freud himself, Karl Abraham, Melanie Klein, Sándor Ferenczi, Franz Alexander, Jean Piaget, Sándor Radó, Sabina Spielrein, Karen Horney, Edoardo Weiss, and Max Eitingon. The Congress was organized by the Berlin Poliklinik.

At the Business Meeting of 1922, there was a discussion of the possibility of offering a diploma to the members trained by IPA constituent organizations. This was a way of introducing the idea of the international regulation of analytic training. Abraham attempted to take advantage of the meeting in order to promote psychoanalysis while the Berlin press protested at not being allowed free access to the Congress presentations. As we can see, some issues are unavoidably repeated, despite our ability to find new ways of dealing with them (Schrçter, 2007).

In the decades since that time, dramatic events changed the world, Germany, psychoanalysis and the IPA. I would like to reflect on them briefly.

'Remembering, repeating and working through in psychoanalysis and culture today' expresses some of our main concerns as well as areas of current development in theory, practice, research, training and the interface with culture. Why should we dedicate our Congress to revisiting Freud's paper? What is its possible relevance in reflecting on the many challenging issues of our current world? …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Psychoanalysis in a Changing World
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.