Program Evaluation and Replications of School-Based Mental Health Services and Family-Community Interventions with Chronically Disruptive Students

By Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Aeby, Victor G. | School Community Journal, Fall 2005 | Go to article overview

Program Evaluation and Replications of School-Based Mental Health Services and Family-Community Interventions with Chronically Disruptive Students


Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy, Aeby, Victor G., School Community Journal


Abstract

Although outcomes for alternative schools may be mixed, it is generally agreed that counseling, therapy, group work, case management, and family-community involvement have been credited in some effective programs. This study examined program evaluations from 1994-1999 for an alternative school for chronically disruptive students (599 students, ages 9-22) that was funded by a state grant to assure safer, drug-free public schools. School-based mental health services were mandated by the grant. Annual program evaluations and positive outcomes were necessary for continued funding by the state. Psychosocial (self-esteem, depression, locus of control, and life skills) and educational outcomes (grade point averages and attendance) were examined at entry and exit. In addition, 90- and 180-day follow-ups were conducted for educational outcomes. Although educational outcomes improved during assignment to the alternative school (greater than 70% passing), in the 90- and 180-day follow-ups student grade point averages improved but were not passing. Notably, student dropout for alternative students was an average of 8% 180 days after the assignment compared to the school district's 45% dropout rate. The focus of this study was to determine whether the alternative school was a viable family-community intervention for improving social functioning and educational achievement for chronically disruptive students, whether these interventions were effective in improving school safety, and whether the program missions were consistently accomplished during the five years of implementation and one year follow-up based on the program evaluations.

Key Words: school-based mental health services, program evaluation, chronically disruptive students, family-community interventions, replication studies

Introduction

School-based mental health services were first introduced in the early 1980s, coinciding with the development of school-based health centers. Just as the health centers allow students to receive medical care when needed, the mental health services permit students to receive clinical services as needed (Weist & Christodulu, 2000). The application of these programs took on new significance in the 1990s in alternative education when public awareness increased about the presence of violence, weapons, drugs, and alcohol at school. This forced many school districts to consider alternative forms of education for students deemed "chronically disruptive."

As early as 1975, "chronically disruptive students" was a phrase invented by educators with the hope that interventions could be more exact or useful (Miller & D'Alonzo, 1975). At that time, the label, "chronically disruptive" was equated with delinquency, and schools focused on vocational training (Miller, 1975). Over the next three years, the term became synonymous with emotional disabilities (ED). Interventions were designed to raise the awareness of the importance of education for children and teacher training (Smith, 1979; Smith, 1978). Characteristics of "chronically disruptive students" included being rebellious, defying rules, and demonstrating poor academics. The harmful effects of suspension were discussed and appropriate educational interventions were recognized. In 1979, alternative educational programs were first mentioned as a viable educational setting. The alternative program offered a highly structured, closely supervised, and appropriately staffed educational method for schools having difficulty coping with disruptive students (Marien, 1980; Johnson, 1979; Smith, 1979).

In the early 1980s, the label "chronically disruptive students" continued to be equated to emotionally and behaviorally disturbed students (Birney, 1981). Even so, educators were beginning to understand that school disruption had many causes and students had varied needs. Therefore, an ecological or systems approach was necessary, and as a result, "chronically disruptive students" were seen as distinct from students with emotional problems (Bailey, 1983; Eyde & Fink, 1983; Fink & Kokaska, 1983).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Program Evaluation and Replications of School-Based Mental Health Services and Family-Community Interventions with Chronically Disruptive Students
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.