Update on Respiratory Tract Infections

By Inge, Lisa D; Scolaro, Kelly | Drug Topics, August 11, 2008 | Go to article overview

Update on Respiratory Tract Infections


Inge, Lisa D; Scolaro, Kelly, Drug Topics


Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI or URI) are the most common acute illnesses in the general population. Symptoms often involve one or more sites of the respiratory system, including the sinuses, nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx. This results in a substantial number of visits to primary care providers, the emergency room, and ultimately the local pharmacy for either prescription medications or nonprescription symptomatic relief. Pharmacists should be familiar with the etiology and potential treatments for these infections. In doing so they may educate their patients on realistic expectations of antibiotic use, general prevention methods, and assist with referrals to a primary care provider when appropriate.

The common cold

The symptoms associated with the "common cold" are actually caused by at least five major groups of respiratory viruses, including the rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. The rhinovirus group, which is responsible for at least 50% of infections in adults, includes at least 100 types and one subtype. The genetic variation limits the ability for vaccine development as well as the body's ability to achieve immunity against the "common cold."

It is estimated that the economic impact of colds is $40 billion annually in the United States. These cold epidemics occur annually, often in the winter months in the United States. The rhinovirus infection rates also have their seasonal variations in outbreaks. The rhinovirus attack rates are greater in early fall and mid to late spring. The coronaviruses are more prominent in the winter. These trends are likely influenced by the school year and indoor crowding, which facilitates the transmission of viral respiratory secretions among individuals. Viral transmission occurs by hand and mucous membrane exposure and in some cases contaminated surfaces. Frequent hand washing and avoiding hand contact with either the nose or eyes assists in reducing transmission, but aerosol exposure may still occur with some viruses.

The average adult averages two to four episodes of "colds" yearly and children average six to eight episodes. However, adults with children also experience a greater rate due to secondary exposure. Individuals who smoke do not experience a greater number of infectious episodes, but those that occur are more severe. Most infected individuals experience the symptoms of sore throat first, then nasal discharge and congestion, sneezing, and cough, with slight elevations of temperature (<100°F) occurring more often in younger children. Most symptoms resolve within a week, but 25% of patients will experience symptoms for two weeks. Rarely do individuals go on to experience secondary bacterial infections of the sinuses or middle ear in which antibiotic therapy is required. Thus, treatment currently remains limited to symptomatic relief.

Effective therapeutic options for symptomatic relief of sore throat, congestion, and cough in adults include local anesthetics, throat lozenges, systemic or topical decongestants, such as pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine, respectively, and firstgeneration antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine. Recent guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) state that using dextromethorphan and guaifenesin for coughing associated with colds is not effective and may increase morbidity and mortality in patients, especially in children less than 14 years of age. Codeine and homatropine (Hycodan) have also been used as cough suppressants in patients, but their effectiveness has been questioned in treating cough due to colds. Alternative therapies, such as Echinacea, zinc, humidified air, and fluid intake, have not been proven to reduce the severity of symptoms either. High-dose vitamin C (> 2 grams) in some studies has reduced the severity and duration of symptoms in some adults. Additionally, patients with comorbid conditions, particularly hypertension, should be counseled on potential adverse effects associated with pharmacological therapies, particularly oral decongestants. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Update on Respiratory Tract Infections
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.