Hegemony Conditions in the Coproduction Cinema of Latin America: The Role of Spain

By Villazana, Libia | Framework, Fall 2008 | Go to article overview

Hegemony Conditions in the Coproduction Cinema of Latin America: The Role of Spain


Villazana, Libia, Framework


The Spanish have been able to capitalize on their geographic and linguistic location in respect to Latin America. . . . Language is an asset for them.

Javier Protzel, former director of the Peruvian National Cinematography Institute, 2003-6

The story of Latin American international film coproduction begins with a Spanish intervention, as does a large part of Latin American history. Thus, it started in 1931 with the establishment of the First Congress of Hispano- American Cinematography (Primer Congreso Cinematográfico Hispanoamericano) held in Madrid, Spain. The resolutions reached in this meeting regarding coproduction were revised and expanded in a second meeting, the First Hispano- American Cinematography Competition (Primer Certamen Cinematográfico Hispanoamericano) held in Madrid in 1948.1 This last meeting gave rise to a number of coproductions between Spain and Latin America-such as Bella la salvaje (Raúl Medina, CU/ES, 1952). However, by 1948 film coproduction was already a common practice among the countries of the subcontinent, particularly between Mexico and Cuba.2 This is not surprising since Mexico-and to a lesser extent also Argentina-had the most prosperous film industry of the subcontinent during the 1940s and 1950s. This was the so-called Golden Age for Mexican cinema. From 1948, collaborations in film productions between Mexico, Cuba, and Spain started booming.

Nowadays, almost all Latin American countries hold a coproduction agreement, mainly with Spain, but also with other European countries and with Canada. Since the 1940s the interest of Latin American producers in propelling international film coproduction agreements has increased at an extraordinary pace, particularly with Spain. In the 1940s for instance, only one film was coproduced with Spain; in the 1950s it went up to forty-two films. In the 1960s there were sixty-eight, in the 1970s eighty-four, in the 1980s sixty-six, in the 1990s 126, and between 2000 and 2006 there were at least 201 films co-produced.3 From these figures it is feasible to identify two main periods where film production collaborations between Spain and Latin America significantly escalated; during the 1950s and then again in the 1990s. This essay is focused mainly on the 1990s and the successive decades, as the dependency of Latin American producers on foreign backers has seen a significant increase since then.

Two principal elements were at the root of the upsurge in film cooperation during the 1990s. The first was the emergence of coproduction within television networks during the 1980s, which was extended to film.4 The second was the proliferation during the middle of the 1980s and 1990s of multilateral film coproduction bodies involving Latin American countries. These organizations are Fonds Sud (a French fund, devised in 1984), Hubert Bals (a Dutch fund set up in 1988), and Ibermedia (an Ibero-American Aid Fund originally conceived in 1989 and ratified in 1997). Of these organizations, Ibermedia is the most active, with 201 films5 made in coproduction. The United States has not created a body that regulates long-term film coproduction agreements with Latin America. However, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) has established a partnership with leading film enterprises in the subcontinent such as Patagonik Film Group in Argentina. Thus, Ibermedia and Patagonik are taken here as paradigms of the principal financers of film coproduction in Latin America.

1. The Financial Backers of Coproduction in Latin America

Ibermedia was ratified during the Ibero-American Conference of Heads of States and Government (Cumbre Iberoamericana de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno) that took place in Margarita, Venezuela, in 1997. The aim of the Fund is to stimulate the development of the Ibero-American film and media sector. The fund is maintained by a compulsory annual contribution of U.S.$100,000 from its current fourteen member countries. …

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Hegemony Conditions in the Coproduction Cinema of Latin America: The Role of Spain
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.