Does Intellectual Giftedness Affect the Factor Structure of Divergent Thinking? Evidence from a MG-MACS Analysis

By Holling, Heinz; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias | Psychology Science, April 1, 2008 | Go to article overview

Does Intellectual Giftedness Affect the Factor Structure of Divergent Thinking? Evidence from a MG-MACS Analysis


Holling, Heinz, Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias, Psychology Science


Abstract

This study explored the latent structure of divergent thinking as a cognitive ability across gifted and non-gifted samples of students utilizing multiple-group analysis of mean and covariance structures (MG-MACS). Whereas Spearman's law of diminishing returns postulates lower g saturation of cognitive tests with increasing ability level and consequently, a lower correlation of cognitive abilities in more gifted samples, recent evidence from creativity research has shown that correlations of divergent thinking with intelligence are unaffected by ability level. In order to investigate this conflicting state of affairs with respect to divergent thinking, we utilized increasingly restrictive MG-MACS models that were capable of comparing latent variances, covariances, and means between gifted (IQ > 130) and non-gifted (IQ 130) groups of students. In a sample of 1070 German school students, we found that a MG-MACS model assuming partial strict measurement invariance with respect to the postulated factor model of verbal, figural, and numerical divergent thinking could not be rejected. Further, latent variances and covariances of latent divergent thinking factors did not significantly differ between groups, whereas the gifted group exhibited significantly higher latent means. Finally, implications of our results for future research on the latent structure of divergent thinking are discussed.

Key words: Giftedness; Confirmatory factor analysis

Introduction

Many structural theories of intelligence incorporate a factor corresponding to creativity (e.g., Carroll, 1993; Jäger, 1984). Divergent thinking (DT), which has been defined as the capability to generate diverse and numerous ideas (Runco, 1991), can be considered as the core ability for creative achievements. In a classical article, Guilford ( 1950) identified three basic components as factors of DT: Fluency (the total number of ideas generated), flexibility (the number of categories in the ideas) and originality (the number of unique or unusual ideas). However, fluency is usually described as the central component of DT (Hargreaves & Bolton, 1972). In contrast to research on intelligence, DT tests reported in the literature focus on verbal or figural content, thereby neglecting the numerical domain (Cropley, 2000). However, numerical content plays an important role in research on reasoning and problemsolving, where DT is often of central importance (Mumford, Connelly, Baughman, & Marks, 1994). Further, Livne and Milgram (2006) have shown that DT is one important facet of mathematical achievement. Hence, an investigation of numerical DT, and its relationship with verbal and figurai DT, seems necessary to elucidate the factorial structure of DT.

The concept of intellectual giftedness has been defined in different ways across the literature. Some approaches (e.g., Roznowski, Reith, & Hong, 2000) focus exclusively on high intellectual ability (g) as the sole determinant of intellectual giftedness, while others (e.g., Lubinski & Benbow, 2000) perceive giftedness as being multidimensional in nature. The role of creativity (and hence, DT) in models of giftedness varies as well, where some models of intellectual giftedness perceive creativity as a condition sine qua non for outstanding intellectual achievement (Renzulli, 1986), while others perceive creativity as an own form of giftedness (Gagné, 1993). Similar to Roznowski et al. (2000), we take a one-dimensional perspective on intellectual giftedness in this paper, in that subjects with a high level of fluid intelligence are defined as being intellectually gifted. Further, we assume that DT, as a core trait of creative performance, can be conceptualized as a latent cognitive ability that is part of a cognitive taxonomy (Carroll, 1993).

The empirical relationship of DT with intelligence has been intensively researched over the years (cf. Haensly & Reynolds, 1989; Sternberg & O'Hara, 1999).

The rest of this article is only available to active members of Questia

Sign up now for a free, 1-day trial and receive full access to:

  • Questia's entire collection
  • Automatic bibliography creation
  • More helpful research tools like notes, citations, and highlights
  • Ad-free environment

Already a member? Log in now.

Notes for this article

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this article

This article has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this article

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this article

Cited article

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited article

Does Intellectual Giftedness Affect the Factor Structure of Divergent Thinking? Evidence from a MG-MACS Analysis
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this article

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.